(1) The Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ), 10 U.S.C. ss. 801 et seq., and the Manual for Courts-Martial (2008 Edition) are adopted for use by the Florida National Guard, except as otherwise provided by this chapter.
(2) Courts-martial may try any member of the Florida National Guard for any crime or offense made punishable by the Uniform Code of Military Justice (2008 Edition), except that a commissioned officer, warrant officer, or cadet may not be tried by summary courts-martial.
(3) Courts-martial in the state shall be of three kinds, namely: general courts-martial, special courts-martial, and summary courts-martial. General courts-martial and special courts-martial shall be tried by a military judge and a panel of officers as designated in applicable National Guard regulations. However, a panel may include enlisted members, at the request of an enlisted defendant. The military judge must be qualified by attendance at appropriate Judge Advocate General schools and must be certified as qualified by the Adjutant General of Florida. In a general and special court-martial, the defendant may waive trial by panel and request trial by military judge alone. The granting of such waiver shall be in the military judge’s discretion.
(4) General courts-martial in the Florida National Guard may be convened by order of the President of the United States, the Governor, or the Adjutant General as delegated by the Governor, and such courts may adjudge a fine not exceeding $500, confinement not in excess of 200 days; forfeiture of all pay and allowances; reprimand, dismissal, or dishonorable discharge from the service; and reduction to the lowest enlisted grade or any intermediate grade for enlisted personnel. Any two or more of such punishments may be combined in the sentence authorized in this section.
(5) When not in the active service of the United States, the commanding officer of each major command of the Florida National Guard or his or her superior commander may convene special courts-martial empowered to adjudicate a bad conduct discharge from the service, subject to the procedural protections provided in 10 U.S.C. s. 819. Special courts-martial with bad conduct discharge authority have the same powers of punishment as do general courts-martial, except that fines adjudged by special courts-martial may not exceed $300 and confinement may not exceed 100 days. Special courts-martial with bad conduct discharge authority may adjudicate a bad conduct discharge from the service, but may not adjudicate a dismissal or dishonorable discharge from the service.
(6) When not in the active service of the United States, the commanding officer of each garrison, fort, post, camp, air base, auxiliary air base, any other place where troops are on duty, division, brigade, group, regiment, battalion, wing, or squadron may convene special courts-martial for his or her command; but such special courts-martial may be convened by superior commanders when advisable. Special courts-martial have the same powers of punishment as general courts-martial, except that fines adjudged by special courts-martial may not exceed $300 and confinement may not exceed 100 days, and dismissal or discharge from the service may not be adjudicated.
(7) When not in the active service of the United States, the commanding officer of each battalion, higher headquarters, or similar type unit may convene summary courts-martial for such place or command. Any person who may convene a general court-martial or special court-martial may convene a summary court-martial. Summary courts-martial may adjudge a fine not in excess of $200 per offense, confinement not in excess of 25 days, forfeiture of pay and allowances, and reduction by one grade of members whom the convening authority had the authority to promote to their present grade. Any two or more of such punishments may be combined in the sentence authorized to be imposed by such courts, except that confinement may not be combined with a fine.
(8) When not in the active service of the United States, commanders may impose nonjudicial punishment in accordance with 10 U.S.C. s. 815, except that punishment may not exceed:
(a) Oral or written reprimand.
(b) Extra duty for 14 days.
(c) Restriction for 14 days.
(d) Fines of $200.
(e) Reduction by one grade of a member whom the commander had the authority to promote.
(f) Any combination of paragraphs (a)-(e), except that a combination of punishment imposed under paragraphs (b) and (c) may not exceed 14 days.
(9) A finding of guilt and the sentence of a summary court-martial may be appealed to the convening authority. If a sentence of imprisonment has been adjudged, the findings and sentence may be appealed to the Adjutant General.
(10)(a) A finding of guilt and the sentence of a court-martial convened under this chapter, as approved by the convening authority and the Adjutant General if a sentence of imprisonment has been adjudged, may be appealed to the First District Court of Appeal.
(b) Any dismissal of a general or special court-martial by the military judge which does not violate the defendant’s constitutional rights may be appealed by the Florida National Guard to the First District Court of Appeal.
(11) When the Florida National Guard is not in the active service of the United States, a sentence of dismissal from the service or dishonorable discharge from the service, imposed by court-martial, may not be executed until approved by the Governor.