August 13, 2020
Print This PagePrint This Page

  *
Session:
Bill #:
Session:
Chamber: View Search Tips
Search Term:
Year: View Search Tips
Search Term:
HB 1763CS

CHAMBER ACTION




1The Committee on Appropriations recommends the following:
2
3     Committee Substitute
4     Remove the entire bill and insert:
5
A bill to be entitled
6An act relating to quality of school personnel; amending
7s. 1004.04, F.S.; revising criteria for admission to
8teacher preparation programs; requiring a certification
9ombudsman; authorizing certain postsecondary institutions
10to develop and implement short-term teaching experiences;
11creating s. 1004.85, F.S.; providing a definition;
12providing for postsecondary institutions to create
13educator preparation institutes; providing purpose of the
14institutes; authorizing institutes to offer alternative
15educator certification programs; requiring Department of
16Education response to a request for approval; providing
17criteria for alternative certification programs; providing
18requirements for program participants; providing for
19participants to receive a credential signifying mastery of
20professional preparation and education competence;
21authorizing school districts to use an alternative
22certification program at an educator preparation institute
23to satisfy certain requirements; requiring performance
24evaluations; requiring certain criteria for instructors;
25providing rulemaking authority; amending s. 1012.05, F.S.;
26requiring the department to concentrate on retention of
27teachers; requiring the department to provide certain
28resources for teachers and to establish an Educator
29Appreciation Week; requiring the department to notify
30teachers of items in the General Appropriations Act
31providing direct benefit to teachers; requiring district
32school boards to adopt policies for mentors and support
33for first-time teachers; requiring school districts to
34electronically submit certain public school e-mail
35addresses; providing duties of the Commissioner of
36Education; amending s. 1012.231, F.S.; authorizing a
37salary career ladder for certain classifications of
38instructional personnel; providing criteria for certain
39lead teachers; reenacting s. 1012.231(1), F.S., relating
40to the salary career ladder, to incorporate the amendment
41to s. 1012.01(2), F.S., in a reference thereto; amending
42s. 1012.32, F.S.; requiring background screening for
43contractual personnel, charter school personnel, and
44certain instructional and noninstructional personnel;
45deleting provision for probationary status for new
46employees pending fingerprint processing; prohibiting
47certain persons from providing services; providing for
48appeals; providing for payment of costs; deleting a
49refingerprinting requirement; requiring the Department of
50Law Enforcement to retain and enter fingerprints into the
51statewide automated fingerprint identification system;
52requiring the Department of Law Enforcement to search
53arrest fingerprint cards against retained fingerprints and
54to report identified arrest records; providing school
55district responsibilities and the imposition of a fee;
56requiring refingerprinting for personnel whose
57fingerprints are not retained; amending s. 1012.33, F.S.;
58revising provisions relating to acceptance of teaching
59service; amending s. 1012.35, F.S.; requiring background
60screening and additional requirements for substitute
61teachers; requiring the department to develop certain
62resources and school districts to develop performance
63appraisal measures; amending s. 1012.39, F.S.; requiring
64background screening and qualifications for substitute
65teachers; requiring background screening for teachers in
66adult education programs and nondegreed teachers of career
67and technical programs; creating s. 1012.465, F.S.;
68requiring background screening for certain
69noninstructional personnel and contractors with the school
70district; requiring such persons to report conviction of a
71disqualifying offense; providing for suspension of
72personnel who do not meet screening requirements; amending
73s. 1012.55, F.S.; providing department duties relating to
74identification of appropriate certification for certain
75instruction; requiring background screening for certain
76instructors; amending s. 1012.56, F.S.; clarifying
77required response of the department to applicants for
78certification; revising eligibility criteria for
79certification applicants; requiring an affidavit for
80educator certification; requiring background screening for
81educator certification; revising means of demonstrating
82mastery of general knowledge, subject area knowledge, and
83professional preparation and education competence;
84providing background screening requirements; requiring
85persons to report conviction of a disqualifying offense;
86providing for suspension from position and revocation or
87suspension of certification; creating s. 1012.561, F.S.;
88providing requirements relating to notification of the
89address of record of a certified educator or applicant for
90certification; amending s. 1012.57, F.S.; requiring
91background screening for adjunct educators; amending s.
921012.585, F.S.; providing requirements for training in the
93teaching of reading for renewal of a professional
94certificate; amending s. 1002.33, F.S.; requiring
95background screening for employees and members of the
96governing boards of charter schools; amending s. 1012.01,
97F.S.; revising definition of the term "instructional
98personnel"; reenacting s. 112.1915(1)(b), F.S., relating
99to death benefits for teachers, to incorporate the
100amendment to s. 1012.01(2), F.S., in a reference thereto;
101amending s. 121.091, F.S.; authorizing the director or
102principal of a developmental research school to authorize
103instructional personnel to participate in the DROP;
104reenacting s. 121.091(9)(b), F.S., relating to Florida
105Retirement System benefits, s. 1011.685(2)(b), F.S.,
106relating to class size reduction operating categorical
107funds, and s. 1012.74(2)(a) and (b), F.S., relating to
108educator professional liability coverage, to incorporate
109the amendment to s. 1012.01(2), F.S., in references
110thereto; providing an effective date.
111
112Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:
113
114     Section 1.  Subsection (4) of section 1004.04, Florida
115Statutes, is amended, subsections (10), (11), and (12) are
116renumbered as subsections (11), (12), and (13), respectively,
117and a new subsection (10) is added to said section, to read:
118     1004.04  Public accountability and state approval for
119teacher preparation programs.--
120     (4)  INITIAL STATE PROGRAM APPROVAL.--
121     (a)  A program approval process based on standards adopted
122pursuant to subsections (2) and (3) must be established for
123postsecondary teacher preparation programs, phased in according
124to timelines determined by the Department of Education, and
125fully implemented for all teacher preparation programs in the
126state. Each program shall be approved by the department,
127consistent with the intent set forth in subsection (1) and based
128primarily upon significant, objective, and quantifiable graduate
129performance measures.
130     (b)  Each teacher preparation program approved by the
131Department of Education, as provided for by this section, shall
132require students to meet the following as prerequisites for
133admission into the program:
134     1.  Have a grade point average of at least 2.5 on a 4.0
135scale for the general education component of undergraduate
136studies or have completed the requirements for a baccalaureate
137degree with a minimum grade point average of 2.5 on a 4.0 scale
138from any college or university accredited by a regional
139accrediting association as defined by State Board of Education
140rule or any college or university otherwise approved pursuant to
141State Board of Education rule.
142     2.  Demonstrate mastery of general knowledge, including the
143ability to read, write, and compute, by passing the General
144Knowledge Test of the Florida Teacher Certification Examination,
145the College Level Academic Skills Test, a corresponding
146component of the National Teachers Examination series, or a
147similar test pursuant to rules of the State Board of Education.
148
149Each teacher preparation program may waive these admissions
150requirements for up to 10 percent of the students admitted.
151Programs shall implement strategies to ensure that students
152admitted under a waiver receive assistance to demonstrate
153competencies to successfully meet requirements for
154certification.
155     (c)  Each teacher preparation program approved by the
156Department of Education, as provided for by this section, shall
157provide a certification ombudsman to facilitate the process and
158procedures required for graduates to obtain educator
159professional or temporary certification pursuant to s. 1012.56.
160     (10)  SHORT-TERM EXPERIENCES AS TEACHER ASSISTANTS.--
161Postsecondary institutions offering teacher preparation programs
162and community colleges, in collaboration with school districts,
163may develop and implement a program to provide short-term
164experiences as teacher assistants prior to beginning a teacher
165preparation program or alternative certification program. The
166program shall serve individuals with baccalaureate degrees who
167are interested in the teaching profession. This experience may
168be accepted for use in teacher preparation programs and
169competency-based alternative certification programs, where
170applicable.
171     Section 2.  Section 1004.85, Florida Statutes, is created
172to read:
173     1004.85  Postsecondary educator preparation institutes.--
174     (1)  As used in this section, "educator preparation
175institute" means an institute created by a postsecondary
176institution and approved by the Department of Education.
177     (2)  Postsecondary institutions may seek approval from the
178Department of Education to create educator preparation
179institutes for the purpose of providing any or all of the
180following:
181     (a)  Professional development instruction to assist
182teachers in improving classroom instruction and in meeting
183certification or recertification requirements.
184     (b)  Instruction to assist potential and existing
185substitute teachers in performing their duties.
186     (c)  Instruction to assist paraprofessionals in meeting
187education and training requirements.
188     (d)  Instruction for baccalaureate degree holders to become
189certified teachers as provided in this section in order to
190increase routes to the classroom for mid-career professionals
191who hold a baccalaureate degree and college graduates who were
192not education majors.
193     (3)  Educator preparation institutes approved pursuant to
194this section may offer alternative certification programs
195specifically designed for noneducation major baccalaureate
196degree holders to enable program participants to meet the
197educator certification requirements of s. 1012.56. Such programs
198shall be competency-based educator certification preparation
199programs that prepare educators through an alternative route. An
200educator preparation institute choosing to offer an alternative
201certification program pursuant to the provisions of this section
202must implement a program previously approved by the Department
203of Education for this purpose or a program developed by the
204institute and approved by the department for this purpose.
205Approved programs shall be available for use by other approved
206educator preparation institutes.
207     (a)  Within 90 days after receipt of a request for
208approval, the Department of Education shall approve an
209alternative certification program or issue a statement of the
210deficiencies in the request for approval. The department shall
211approve an alternative certification program if the institute
212provides sufficient evidence of the following:
213     1.  Instruction must be provided in professional knowledge
214and subject matter content that includes educator-accomplished
215practices and competencies specified in State Board of Education
216rule; meets subject matter content requirements and professional
217competency testing requirements; and includes competencies
218associated with teaching scientifically based reading
219instruction and strategies that research has shown to be
220successful in improving reading among low-performing readers.
221     2.  The program must provide field experience with
222supervision from qualified educators.
223     3.  The program must provide a certification ombudsman to
224facilitate the process and procedures required for participants
225who complete the program to meet any requirements related to the
226background screening pursuant to s. 1012.32 and educator
227professional or temporary certification pursuant to s. 1012.56.
228     (b)  Each program participant must:
229     1.  Meet certification requirements pursuant to s.
2301012.56(1) by obtaining a statement of status of eligibility and
231meet the requirements of s. 1012.56(2)(a)-(f).
232     2.  Participate in field experience that is appropriate to
233his or her educational plan.
234     3.  Fully demonstrate his or her ability to teach the
235subject area for which he or she is seeking certification prior
236to completion of the program.
237     (c)  Upon completion of an alternative certification
238program approved pursuant to this subsection, a participant
239shall receive a credential from the sponsoring institution
240signifying satisfaction of the requirements of s. 1012.56(5)
241relating to mastery of professional preparation and education
242competence. A participant shall be eligible for educator
243certification through the Department of Education upon
244satisfaction of all requirements for certification set forth in
245s. 1012.56(2), including demonstration of mastery of general
246knowledge, subject area knowledge, and professional preparation
247and education competence, through testing or other statutorily
248authorized means.
249     (d)  If an institution offers an alternative certification
250program approved pursuant to this subsection, such program may
251be used by the school district or districts served by that
252institution to fully satisfy the requirements for the provision
253of a competency-based professional preparation alternative
254certification program as required in s. 1012.56(7).
255     (4)  Each institute approved pursuant to this section shall
256submit to the Department of Education annual performance
257evaluations that measure the effectiveness of the programs,
258including the pass rates of participants on all examinations
259required for teacher certification, employment rates,
260longitudinal retention rates, and employer satisfaction surveys.
261The employer satisfaction surveys must be designed to measure
262the sufficient preparation of the educator to enter the
263classroom.
264     (5)  Instructors for an alternative certification program
265approved pursuant to this section must possess a master's degree
266in education or a master's degree in an appropriate related
267field and document teaching experience.
268     (6)  Educator preparation institutes approved pursuant to
269this section and providing approved instructional programs for
270any of the purposes in subsection (2) are eligible for funding
271from federal and state funds, as appropriated by the
272Legislature.      
273     (7)  The State Board of Education may adopt rules pursuant
274to ss. 120.536(1) and 120.54 to implement the provisions of this
275section.
276     Section 3.  Section 1012.05, Florida Statutes, is amended
277to read:
278     1012.05  Teacher recruitment and retention.--
279     (1)  The Department of Education, in cooperation with
280teacher organizations, district personnel offices, and schools,
281colleges, and departments of all public and nonpublic
282postsecondary educational institutions, shall concentrate on the
283recruitment and retention of qualified teachers.
284     (2)  The Department of Education shall:
285     (a)  Develop and implement a system for posting teaching
286vacancies and establish a database of teacher applicants that is
287accessible within and outside the state.
288     (b)  Advertise in major newspapers, national professional
289publications, and other professional publications and in public
290and nonpublic postsecondary educational institutions.
291     (c)  Utilize state and nationwide toll-free numbers.
292     (d)  Conduct periodic communications with district
293personnel directors regarding applicants.
294     (e)  Provide district access to the applicant database by
295computer or telephone.
296     (f)  Develop and distribute promotional materials related
297to the teaching profession as a career.
298     (g)  Publish and distribute information pertaining to
299employment opportunities, application procedures, and all routes
300toward teacher certification in Florida, and teacher salaries.
301     (h)  Provide information related to certification
302procedures.
303     (i)  Develop and sponsor the Florida Future Educator of
304America Program throughout the state.
305     (j)  Develop, in consultation with school district staff
306including, but not limited to, district school superintendents,
307district school board members, and district human resources
308personnel, a long-range plan for educator recruitment and
309retention.
310     (k)  Identify best practices for retaining high-quality
311teachers.
312     (l)  Develop, in consultation with Workforce Florida, Inc.,
313and the Agency for Workforce Innovation, created pursuant to ss.
314445.004 and 20.50, respectively, a plan for accessing and
315identifying available resources in the state's workforce system
316for the purpose of enhancing teacher recruitment and retention.
317     (m)  In consultation with school districts, create
318guidelines and identify best practices for mentors of first-time
319teachers and for new teacher support programs that focus on the
320professional assistance needed by first-time teachers throughout
321the first year of teaching.
322     (n)(m)  Develop and implement a First Response Center to
323provide educator candidates one-stop shopping for information on
324teaching careers in Florida and establish the Teacher Lifeline
325Network to provide online support to beginning teachers and
326those needing assistance.
327     (o)  Develop and implement an online teacher tool kit that
328contains a menu of resources, based on the Sunshine State
329Standards, which all teachers can use to enhance classroom
330instruction and increase teacher effectiveness to improve
331student achievement.
332     (p)  Establish an Educator Appreciation Week to recognize
333the significant contributions made by educators to their
334students and school communities.
335     (q)  Notify each teacher, via e-mail, of each item in the
336General Appropriations Act that provides direct benefit to
337teachers, including, but not limited to, the Dale Hickam
338Excellent Teaching Program, the Florida Teachers Lead Program
339Stipend, teacher liability insurance protection, and teacher
340death benefits.
341     (3)(a)  Each district school board shall adopt policies
342relating to mentors and support for first-time teachers based
343upon guidelines issued by the Department of Education.
344     (b)  By September 15 and February 15 each school year, each
345school district shall electronically submit to the Department of
346Education accurate public school e-mail addresses for all
347instructional and administrative personnel as defined in s.
3481012.01(2) and (3).
349     (4)(3)  The Department of Education, in cooperation with
350district personnel offices, shall sponsor a job fair in a
351central part of the state to match in-state educators and
352potential educators and out-of-state educators and potential
353educators with teaching opportunities in this state.
354     (5)(4)  Subject to proviso in the General Appropriations
355Act, the Commissioner of Education may use funds appropriated by
356the Legislature and funds from federal grants and other sources
357to provide incentives for teacher recruitment and preparation
358programs. The purpose of the use of such funds is to recruit and
359prepare individuals who do not graduate from state-approved
360teacher preparation programs to teach in a Florida public
361school. The commissioner may contract with entities other than,
362and including, approved teacher preparation programs to provide
363intensive teacher training leading to passage of the required
364certification exams for the desired subject area or coverage.
365The commissioner shall survey school districts to evaluate the
366effectiveness of such programs.
367     (6)  The commissioner is directed to take steps that
368provide flexibility and consistency in meeting the high-quality
369teacher criteria defined in the federal No Child Left Behind Act
370through a High, Objective, Uniform State Standard of Evaluation
371(HOUSSE).
372     Section 4.  Subsections (2) and (3) of section 1012.231,
373Florida Statutes, are renumbered as subsections (3) and (4),
374respectively, a new subsection (2) is added to said section,
375and, for the purpose of incorporating the amendment to section
3761012.01(2), Florida Statutes, in a reference thereto, subsection
377(1) of said section is reenacted, to read:
378     1012.231  BEST Florida Teaching salary career ladder
379program; assignment of teachers.--
380     (1)  SALARY CAREER LADDER FOR CLASSROOM TEACHERS.--
381Beginning with the 2004-2005 academic year, each district school
382board shall implement a salary career ladder for classroom
383teachers as defined in s. 1012.01(2)(a). Performance shall be
384defined as designated in s. 1012.34(3)(a)1.-7. District school
385boards shall designate categories of classroom teachers
386reflecting these salary career ladder levels as follows:
387     (a)  Associate teacher.--Classroom teachers in the school
388district who have not yet received a professional certificate or
389those with a professional certificate who are evaluated as low-
390performing teachers.
391     (b)  Professional teacher.--Classroom teachers in the
392school district who have received a professional certificate.
393     (c)  Lead teacher.--Classroom teachers in the school
394district who are responsible for leading others in the school as
395department chair, lead teacher, grade-level leader, intern
396coordinator, or professional development coordinator. Lead
397teachers must participate on a regular basis in the direct
398instruction of students and serve as faculty for professional
399development activities as determined by the State Board of
400Education. To be eligible for designation as a lead teacher, a
401teacher must demonstrate outstanding performance pursuant to s.
4021012.34(3)(a)1.-7. and must have been a "professional teacher"
403pursuant to paragraph (b) for at least 1 year.
404     (d)  Mentor teacher.--Classroom teachers in the school
405district who serve as regular mentors to other teachers who are
406either not performing satisfactorily or who strive to become
407more proficient. Mentor teachers must serve as faculty-based
408professional development coordinators and regularly demonstrate
409and share their expertise with other teachers in order to remain
410mentor teachers. Mentor teachers must also participate on a
411regular basis in the direct instruction of low-performing
412students. To be eligible for designation as a mentor teacher, a
413teacher must demonstrate outstanding performance pursuant to s.
4141012.34(3)(a)1.-7. and must have been a "lead teacher" pursuant
415to paragraph (c) for at least two years.
416
417Promotion of a teacher to a higher level on the salary career
418ladder shall be based upon prescribed performance criteria and
419not based upon length of service.
420     (2)  SALARY CAREER LADDER FOR CERTAIN CLASSIFICATIONS OF
421INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL.--Each school district may incorporate
422one or more individuals into the district career ladder program
423as lead teachers pursuant to paragraph (1)(c) for the following
424classifications:
425     (a)  Student personnel services as defined in s.
4261012.01(2)(b).
427     (b)  Librarians/media specialists as defined in s.
4281012.01(2)(c).
429     (c)  Other instructional staff as defined in s.
4301012.01(2)(d).
431     (d)  Teachers of English for Speakers of Other Languages
432pursuant to s. 1003.56.
433
434If a school district chooses to incorporate individuals
435identified in this subsection into the district career ladder
436program, a lead teacher designated pursuant to this subsection
437shall serve as a team leader, intern coordinator, or
438professional development coordinator; shall participate in
439direct instruction of students throughout the school year; and
440shall serve as faculty for professional development activities
441as determined by the State Board of Education. To be eligible
442for designation as a lead teacher, an educator must demonstrate
443outstanding performance pursuant to s. 1012.34(3)(a).
444     Section 5.  Section 1012.32, Florida Statutes, is amended
445to read:
446     1012.32  Qualifications of personnel.--
447     (1)  To be eligible for appointment in any position in any
448district school system, a person shall be of good moral
449character; shall have attained the age of 18 years, if he or she
450is to be employed in an instructional capacity; and shall, when
451required by law, hold a certificate or license issued under
452rules of the State Board of Education or the Department of
453Children and Family Services, except when employed pursuant to
454s. 1012.55 or under the emergency provisions of s. 1012.24.
455Previous residence in this state shall not be required in any
456school of the state as a prerequisite for any person holding a
457valid Florida certificate or license to serve in an
458instructional capacity.
459     (2)(a)  Instructional and noninstructional personnel who
460are hired or contracted to fill positions requiring direct
461contact with students in any district school system or
462university lab school shall, upon employment or engagement to
463provide services, undergo background screening as required under
464s. 1012.56 or s. 1012.465, whichever is applicable, file a
465complete set of fingerprints taken by an authorized law
466enforcement officer or an employee of the school or district who
467is trained to take fingerprints.
468     (b)  Instructional and noninstructional personnel who are
469hired or contracted to fill positions in any charter school and
470members of the governing board of any charter school, in
471compliance with s. 1002.33(12)(g), shall, upon employment,
472engagement of services, or appointment, undergo background
473screening as required under s. 1012.56 or s. 1012.465, whichever
474is applicable, by filing with the district school board for the
475school district in which the charter school is located a
476complete set of fingerprints taken by an authorized law
477enforcement agency or an employee of the school or school
478district who is trained to take fingerprints.
479     (c)  Instructional and noninstructional personnel who are
480hired or contracted to fill positions requiring direct contact
481with students in an alternative school that operates under
482contract with a district school system shall, upon employment or
483engagement to provide services, undergo background screening as
484required under s. 1012.56 or s. 1012.465, whichever is
485applicable, by filing with the district school board for the
486school district to which the alternative school is under
487contract a complete set of fingerprints taken by an authorized
488law enforcement agency or an employee of the school or school
489district who is trained to take fingerprints.
490     (d)  Student teachers, persons participating in a field
491experience pursuant to s. 1004.04(6) or s. 1004.85, and persons
492participating in a short-term experience as a teacher assistant
493pursuant to s. 1004.04(10) in any district school system, lab
494school, or charter school shall, upon engagement to provide
495services, undergo background screening as required under s.
4961012.56.
497
498These Fingerprints shall be submitted to the Department of Law
499Enforcement for state processing and to the Federal Bureau of
500Investigation for federal processing. Persons subject to this
501subsection The new employees shall be on probationary status
502pending fingerprint processing and determination of compliance
503with standards of good moral character. Employees found through
504fingerprint processing to have been convicted of a crime
505involving moral turpitude shall not be employed, engaged to
506provide services, or serve in any position requiring direct
507contact with students. Probationary persons subject to this
508subsection employees terminated because of their criminal record
509shall have the right to appeal such decisions. The cost of the
510background screening fingerprint processing may be borne by the
511district school board, the charter school, or the employee, the
512contractor, or a person subject to this subsection.
513     (b) Personnel who have been fingerprinted or screened
514pursuant to this subsection and who have not been unemployed for
515more than 90 days shall not be required to be refingerprinted or
516rescreened in order to comply with the requirements of this
517subsection.
518     (3)(a)  Beginning July 1, 2004, all fingerprints submitted
519to the Department of Law Enforcement as required by subsection
520(2) shall be retained by the Department of Law Enforcement in a
521manner provided by rule and entered in the statewide automated
522fingerprint identification system authorized by s. 943.05(2)(b).
523Such fingerprints shall thereafter be available for all purposes
524and uses authorized for arrest fingerprint cards entered in the
525statewide automated fingerprint identification system pursuant
526to s. 943.051.
527     (b)  Beginning December 15, 2004, the Department of Law
528Enforcement shall search all arrest fingerprint cards received
529under s. 943.051 against the fingerprints retained in the
530statewide automated fingerprint identification system under
531paragraph (a). Any arrest record that is identified with the
532retained fingerprints of a person subject to the background
533screening under this section shall be reported to the employing
534or contracting school district or the school district with which
535the person is affiliated. Each school district is required to
536participate in this search process by payment of an annual fee
537to the Department of Law Enforcement and by informing the
538Department of Law Enforcement of any change in the affiliation,
539employment, or contractual status or place of affiliation,
540employment, or contracting of its instructional and
541noninstructional personnel whose fingerprints are retained under
542paragraph (a). The Department of Law Enforcement shall adopt a
543rule setting the amount of the annual fee to be imposed upon
544each school district for performing these searches and
545establishing the procedures for the retention of instructional
546and noninstructional personnel fingerprints and the
547dissemination of search results. The fee may be borne by the
548district school board, the contractor, or the person
549fingerprinted.
550     (c)  Personnel whose fingerprints are not retained by the
551Department of Law Enforcement under paragraphs (a) and (b) are
552required to be refingerprinted and must meet state and federal
553background screening requirements as described in this section,
554upon reemployment or reengagement to provide services, in order
555to comply with the requirements of this subsection.
556     Section 6.  Paragraph (g) of subsection (3) of section
5571012.33, Florida Statutes, is amended to read:
558     1012.33  Contracts with instructional staff, supervisors,
559and school principals.--
560     (3)
561     (g)  Beginning July 1, 2001, For each employee who enters
562into a written contract, pursuant to this section, in a school
563district in which the employee was not employed as of June 30,
5642001, for purposes of pay, a district school board must
565recognize and accept each year of full-time public school
566teaching service earned in the State of Florida or outside the
567state and for which the employee received a satisfactory
568performance evaluation. Instructional personnel employed
569pursuant to s. 121.091(9)(b)3. are exempt from the provisions of
570this paragraph.
571     Section 7.  Section 1012.35, Florida Statutes, is amended
572to read:
573     1012.35  Substitute teachers.--
574     (1)(a)  Each district school board shall adopt rules
575prescribing the compensation of, and the procedure for
576employment of, substitute teachers. Such procedure for
577employment shall include, but is not limited to, the background
578screening filing of a complete set of fingerprints as required
579in s. 1012.32; documentation of a minimum education level of a
580high school diploma or its equivalent; and completion of an
581initial orientation/training program in school district policies
582and procedures addressing school safety and security procedures,
583educational liability laws, professional responsibilities, and
584ethics.
585     (b)  Candidates without prior teaching experience, as
586determined by the employing school district, must complete an
587additional training program that includes classroom management
588skills and instructional strategies.
589     (c)  The required training programs for substitute teachers
590may be provided by educator preparation institutes established
591pursuant to s. 1004.85, community colleges, colleges of
592education, district school boards, educational consortia, or
593commercial vendors.
594     (d)  It is recommended that ongoing training and access to
595professional development offerings be made available to
596substitute teachers by the employing school district.
597     (2)  The Department of Education shall develop web-based
598resources to enhance school district substitute teacher
599orientation programs and provide web-based training resources to
600meet the required training pursuant to paragraph (1)(b).
601     (3)  School districts shall develop performance appraisal
602measures for assessing the quality of instruction delivered by
603substitute teachers who provide instruction for 30 or more days
604in a single classroom placement.
605     Section 8.  Subsection (1) of section 1012.39, Florida
606Statutes, is amended to read:
607     1012.39  Employment of substitute teachers, teachers of
608adult education, nondegreed teachers of career education, and
609career specialists; students performing clinical field
610experience.--
611     (1)  Notwithstanding ss. 1012.32, 1012.55, 1012.56, and
6121012.57, or any other provision of law or rule to the contrary,
613each district school board shall establish the minimal
614qualifications for:
615     (a)  Substitute teachers to be employed pursuant to s.
6161012.35. The qualifications shall require the filing of a
617background screening complete set of fingerprints in the same
618manner as required by s. 1012.32; documentation of a minimum
619education level of a high school diploma or its equivalent; and
620completion of an initial orientation/training program in school
621district policies and procedures addressing school safety and
622security procedures, educational liability laws, professional
623responsibilities, and ethics.
624     (b)  Part-time and full-time teachers in adult education
625programs. The qualifications shall require the filing of a
626background screening complete set of fingerprints in the same
627manner as required by s. 1012.32. Faculty employed solely to
628conduct postsecondary instruction may be exempted from this
629requirement.
630     (c)  Part-time and full-time nondegreed teachers of career
631and technical programs. Qualifications shall be established for
632agriculture, business, health occupations, family and consumer
633sciences, industrial, marketing, career specialist, and public
634service education teachers, based primarily on successful
635occupational experience rather than academic training. The
636qualifications for such teachers shall require:
637     1.  The filing of a background screening complete set of
638fingerprints in the same manner as required by s. 1012.32.
639Faculty employed solely to conduct postsecondary instruction may
640be exempted from this requirement.
641     2.  Documentation of education and successful occupational
642experience including documentation of:
643     a.  A high school diploma or the equivalent.
644     b.  Completion of 6 years of full-time successful
645occupational experience or the equivalent of part-time
646experience in the teaching specialization area. Alternate means
647of determining successful occupational experience may be
648established by the district school board.
649     c.  Completion of career education training conducted
650through the local school district inservice master plan.
651     d.  For full-time teachers, completion of professional
652education training in teaching methods, course construction,
653lesson planning and evaluation, and teaching special needs
654students. This training may be completed through coursework from
655an accredited or approved institution or an approved district
656teacher education program.
657     e.  Demonstration of successful teaching performance.
658     Section 9.  Section 1012.465, Florida Statutes, is created
659to read:
660     1012.465  Background screening requirements for certain
661noninstructional school district employees and contractors.--
662     (1)  Noninstructional school district employees or
663contractual personnel who have direct contact with students or
664have access to or control of school funds must meet background
665screening requirements as described in s. 1012.32.
666     (2)  Every 5 years following employment or entry into a
667contract in a capacity described in subsection (1), each person
668who is so employed or under contract with the school district
669must meet background screening requirements at which time the
670school district shall request the Department of Law Enforcement
671to forward the fingerprints to the Federal Bureau of
672Investigation for the federal background screening. If, for any
673reason following employment or entry into a contract in a
674capacity described in subsection (1), the fingerprints of a
675person who is so employed or under contract with the school
676district are not retained by the Department of Law Enforcement
677under s. 1012.32(3)(a) and (b), the person must file a complete
678set of fingerprints with the district school superintendent of
679the employing or contracting school district. Upon submission of
680fingerprints for this purpose, the school district shall request
681the Department of Law Enforcement to forward the fingerprints to
682the Federal Bureau of Investigation for federal background
683screening, and the fingerprints shall be retained by the
684Department of Law Enforcement under s. 1012.32(3)(a) and (b).
685The cost of the state and federal criminal history check may be
686borne by the district school board, the contractor, or the
687person fingerprinted. Under penalty of perjury, each person who
688is employed or under contract in a capacity described in
689subsection (1) must agree to inform his or her employer or the
690party with whom he or she is under contract within 48 hours if
691convicted of any disqualifying offense while he or she is
692employed or under contract in that capacity.
693     (3)  If it is found that a person who is employed or under
694contract in a capacity described in subsection (1) does not meet
695the background screening requirements described in s. 1012.32,
696the person shall be immediately suspended from working in that
697capacity and shall remain suspended until final resolution of
698any appeals.
699     Section 10.  Subsections (1) and (4) of section 1012.55,
700Florida Statutes, are amended to read:
701     1012.55  Positions for which certificates required.--
702     (1)  The State Board of Education shall classify school
703services, designate the certification subject areas, establish
704competencies, including the use of technology to enhance student
705learning, and certification requirements for all school-based
706personnel, and adopt rules in accordance with which the
707professional, temporary, and part-time certificates shall be
708issued by the Department of Education to applicants who meet the
709standards prescribed by such rules for their class of service.
710Each person employed or occupying a position as school
711supervisor, school principal, teacher, library media specialist,
712school counselor, athletic coach, or other position in which the
713employee serves in an instructional capacity, in any public
714school of any district of this state shall hold the certificate
715required by law and by rules of the State Board of Education in
716fulfilling the requirements of the law for the type of service
717rendered. The Department of Education shall identify appropriate
718educator certification for the instruction of specified courses
719in an annual publication of a directory of course code numbers
720for all programs and courses that are funded through the Florida
721Education Finance Program. However, the state board shall adopt
722rules authorizing district school boards to employ selected
723noncertificated personnel to provide instructional services in
724the individuals' fields of specialty or to assist instructional
725staff members as education paraprofessionals.
726     (4)  A commissioned or noncommissioned military officer who
727is an instructor of junior reserve officer training shall be
728exempt from requirements for teacher certification, except for
729the background screening filing of fingerprints pursuant to s.
7301012.32, if he or she meets the following qualifications:
731     (a)  Is retired from active military duty, pursuant to
732chapter 102 of Title 10, U.S.C.
733     (b)  Satisfies criteria established by the appropriate
734military service for certification by the service as a junior
735reserve officer training instructor.
736     (c)  Has an exemplary military record.
737
738If such instructor is assigned instructional duties other than
739junior reserve officer training, he or she shall hold the
740certificate required by law and rules of the state board for the
741type of service rendered.
742     Section 11.  Subsection (1), paragraphs (b) and (d) of
743subsection (2), and subsections (3), (4), and (5) of section
7441012.56, Florida Statutes, are amended, subsections (9) through
745(15) are renumbered as subsections (10) through (16),
746respectively, and a new subsection (9) is added to said section,
747to read:
748     1012.56  Educator certification requirements.--
749     (1)  APPLICATION.--Each person seeking certification
750pursuant to this chapter shall submit a completed application
751containing the applicant's social security number to the
752Department of Education and remit the fee required pursuant to
753s. 1012.59 and rules of the State Board of Education. Pursuant
754to the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity
755Reconciliation Act of 1996, each party is required to provide
756his or her social security number in accordance with this
757section. Disclosure of social security numbers obtained through
758this requirement is limited to the purpose of administration of
759the Title IV-D program of the Social Security Act for child
760support enforcement. Pursuant to s. 120.60, the department shall
761issue within 90 calendar days after the stamped receipted date
762of the completed application:
763     (a)  If the applicant meets the requirements, a
764professional certificate covering the classification, level, and
765area for which the applicant is deemed qualified and a document
766explaining the requirements for renewal of the professional
767certificate; or
768     (b)  If the applicant meets the requirements and if
769requested by an employing school district or an employing
770private school with a professional education competence
771demonstration program pursuant to paragraphs (5)(f) and (7)(b),
772a temporary certificate covering the classification, level, and
773area for which the applicant is deemed qualified and an official
774statement of status of eligibility; or
775     (c)(b)  If an applicant does not meet the requirements for
776either certificate, an official statement of status of
777eligibility.
778
779The statement of status of eligibility must advise the applicant
780of any qualifications that must be completed to qualify for
781certification. Each statement of status of eligibility is valid
782for 3 years after its date of issuance, except as provided in
783paragraph (2)(d).
784     (2)  ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA.--To be eligible to seek
785certification, a person must:
786     (b)  File an affidavit a written statement, under oath,
787that the applicant subscribes to and will uphold the principles
788incorporated in the Constitution of the United States and the
789Constitution of the State of Florida and that the information
790provided in the application is true, accurate, and complete. The
791affidavit shall be by original signature or by electronic
792authentication. The affidavit shall include substantially the
793following warning:
794
795WARNING: Giving false information in order to obtain or renew a
796Florida educator's certificate is a criminal offense under
797Florida law. Anyone giving false information on this affidavit
798is subject to criminal prosecution as well as disciplinary
799action by the Education Practices Commission.
800
801     (d)  Submit to background screening in accordance with
802subsection (9) a fingerprint check from the Department of Law
803Enforcement and the Federal Bureau of Investigation pursuant to
804s. 1012.32. If the background screening indicates fingerprint
805reports indicate a criminal history or if the applicant
806acknowledges a criminal history, the applicant's records shall
807be referred to the investigative section in the Department of
808Education Bureau of Educator Standards for review and
809determination of eligibility for certification. If the applicant
810fails to provide the necessary documentation requested by the
811department Bureau of Educator Standards within 90 days after the
812date of the receipt of the certified mail request, the statement
813of eligibility and pending application shall become invalid.
814     (3)  MASTERY OF GENERAL KNOWLEDGE.--Acceptable means of
815demonstrating mastery of general knowledge are:
816     (a)  Achievement of passing scores on basic skills
817examination required by state board rule;
818     (b)  Achievement of passing scores on the College Level
819Academic Skills Test earned prior to July 1, 2002;
820     (c)  A valid professional standard teaching certificate
821issued by another state;
822     (d)  A valid certificate issued by the National Board for
823Professional Teaching Standards or a national educator
824credentialing board approved by the State Board of Education; or
825     (e)  Documentation of two semesters of successful teaching
826in a community college, state university, or private college or
827university that awards an associate or higher degree and is an
828accredited institution or an institution of higher education
829identified by the Department of Education as having a quality
830program.
831     (4)  MASTERY OF SUBJECT AREA KNOWLEDGE.--Acceptable means
832of demonstrating mastery of subject area knowledge are:
833     (a)  Achievement of passing scores on subject area
834examinations required by state board rule;
835     (b)  Completion of the subject area specialization
836requirements specified in state board rule and verification of
837the attainment of the essential subject matter competencies by
838the district school superintendent of the employing school
839district or chief administrative officer of the employing state-
840supported or private school for a subject area for which a
841subject area examination has not been developed and required by
842state board rule;
843     (c)  Completion of the subject area specialization
844requirements specified in state board rule for a subject
845coverage requiring a master's or higher degree and achievement
846of a passing score on the subject area examination specified in
847state board rule;
848     (d)  A valid professional standard teaching certificate
849issued by another state; or
850     (e)  A valid certificate issued by the National Board for
851Professional Teaching Standards or a national educator
852credentialing board approved by the State Board of Education.
853     (5)  MASTERY OF PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION AND EDUCATION
854COMPETENCE.--Acceptable means of demonstrating mastery of
855professional preparation and education competence are:
856     (a)  Completion of an approved teacher preparation program
857at a postsecondary educational institution within this state and
858achievement of a passing score on the professional education
859competency examination required by state board rule;
860     (b)  Completion of a teacher preparation program at a
861postsecondary educational institution outside Florida and
862achievement of a passing score on the professional education
863competency examination required by state board rule;
864     (c)  A valid professional standard teaching certificate
865issued by another state;
866     (d)  A valid certificate issued by the National Board for
867Professional Teaching Standards or a national educator
868credentialing board approved by the State Board of Education;
869     (e)  Documentation of two semesters of successful teaching
870in a community college, state university, or private college or
871university that awards an associate or higher degree and is an
872accredited institution or an institution of higher education
873identified by the Department of Education as having a quality
874program;
875     (f)  Completion of professional preparation courses as
876specified in state board rule, successful completion of a
877professional education competence demonstration program pursuant
878to paragraph (7)(b), and achievement of a passing score on the
879professional education competency examination required by state
880board rule; or
881     (g)  Successful completion of a professional preparation
882alternative certification and education competency program,
883outlined in paragraph (7)(a); or
884     (h)  Successful completion of an alternative certification
885program pursuant to s. 1004.85 and achievement of a passing
886score on the professional education competency examination
887required by state board rule.
888     (9)  BACKGROUND SCREENING REQUIRED, INITIALLY AND
889PERIODICALLY.--
890     (a)  Each person who seeks certification under this chapter
891must meet the background screening requirements described in s.
8921012.32 unless state and federal background screening has been
893conducted by a district school board or the Department of
894Education within 12 months before the date the person initially
895obtains certification under this chapter, the results of which
896are submitted to the district school board or to the Department
897of Education.
898     (b)  A person may not receive a certificate under this
899chapter until the background screening has been completed and
900the results have been submitted to the Department of Education
901or to the district school superintendent of the school district
902that employs the person. Every 5 years after obtaining initial
903certification, each person who is required to be certified under
904this chapter must meet background screening requirements as
905described in s. 1012.32 at which time the school district shall
906request the Department of Law Enforcement to forward the
907fingerprints to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the
908federal background screening. If, for any reason after obtaining
909initial certification, the fingerprints of a person who is
910required to be certified under this chapter are not retained by
911the Department of Law Enforcement under s. 1012.32(3)(a) and
912(b), the person must file a complete set of fingerprints with
913the district school superintendent of the employing school
914district. Upon submission of fingerprints for this purpose, the
915school district shall request the Department of Law Enforcement
916to forward the fingerprints to the Federal Bureau of
917Investigation for federal background screening, and the
918fingerprints shall be retained by the Department of Law
919Enforcement under s. 1012.32(3)(a) and (b). The cost of the
920state and federal criminal history check may be borne by the
921district school board or the employee. Under penalty of perjury,
922each person who is certified under this chapter must agree to
923inform his or her employer within 48 hours if convicted of any
924disqualifying offense while he or she is employed in a position
925for which such certification is required.
926     (c)  If it is found under s. 1012.796 that a person who is
927employed in a position requiring certification under this
928chapter does not meet the background screening requirements, the
929person's certification shall be immediately revoked or suspended
930and he or she shall be immediately suspended from the position
931requiring certification.
932     Section 12.  Section 1012.561, Florida Statutes, is created
933to read:
934     1012.561  Address of record.--Each certified educator or
935applicant for certification is responsible for maintaining his
936or her current address with the Department of Education and for
937notifying the department in writing of a change of address. By
938January 1, 2005, each educator and applicant for certification
939must have on file with the department a current mailing address.
940Thereafter, a certified educator or applicant for certification
941who is employed by a district school board shall notify his or
942her employing school district in writing within 10 days after a
943change of address. At a minimum, the employing district school
944board shall notify the department quarterly of the addresses of
945certified educators or applicants for certification in the
946manner prescribed by the department. A certified educator or
947applicant for certification not employed by a district school
948board shall personally notify the department in writing within
94930 days after a change of address. Electronic notification shall
950be permitted by the department; however, it shall be the
951responsibility of the certified educator or applicant for
952certification to ascertain that the electronic notification was
953received by the department.
954     Section 13.  Section 1012.57, Florida Statutes, is amended
955to read:
956     1012.57  Certification of adjunct educators.--
957     (1)  Notwithstanding the provisions of ss. 1012.32,
9581012.55, and 1012.56, or any other provision of law or rule to
959the contrary, district school boards shall adopt rules to allow
960for the issuance of an adjunct teaching certificate to any
961applicant who fulfills the requirements of s. 1012.56(2)(a)-(f)
962and (9) and who has expertise in the subject area to be taught.
963An applicant shall be considered to have expertise in the
964subject area to be taught if the applicant demonstrates
965sufficient subject area mastery through passage of a subject
966area test. The adjunct teaching certificate shall be used for
967part-time teaching positions. The intent of this provision is to
968allow school districts to tap the wealth of talent and expertise
969represented in Florida's citizens who may wish to teach part-
970time in a Florida public school by permitting school districts
971to issue adjunct certificates to qualified applicants. Adjunct
972certificateholders should be used as a strategy to reduce the
973teacher shortage; thus, adjunct certificateholders should
974supplement a school's instructional staff, not supplant it. Each
975school principal shall assign an experienced peer mentor to
976assist the adjunct teaching certificateholder during the
977certificateholder's first year of teaching, and an adjunct
978certificateholder may participate in a district's new teacher
979training program. District school boards shall provide the
980adjunct teaching certificateholder an orientation in classroom
981management prior to assigning the certificateholder to a school.
982Each adjunct teaching certificate is valid for 5 school years
983and is renewable if the applicant has received satisfactory
984performance evaluations during each year of teaching under
985adjunct teaching certification.
986     (2)  Individuals who are certified and employed under
987pursuant to this section shall have the same rights and
988protection of laws as teachers certified under pursuant to s.
9891012.56.
990     Section 14.  Paragraph (d) of subsection (3) of section
9911012.585, Florida Statutes, is amended to read:
992     1012.585  Process for renewal of professional
993certificates.--
994     (3)  For the renewal of a professional certificate, the
995following requirements must be met:
996     (d)  The State Board of Education shall adopt rules for the
997expanded use of training for renewal of the professional
998certificate for educators who are required to complete training
999in teaching students of limited English proficiency and training
1000in the teaching of reading as follows:
1001     1.  A teacher who holds a professional certificate may use
1002college credits or inservice points completed in English-for-
1003Speakers-of-Other-Languages training and training in the
1004teaching of reading in excess of 6 semester hours during one
1005certificate-validity period toward renewal of the professional
1006certificate during the subsequent validity periods.
1007     2.  A teacher who holds a temporary certificate may use
1008college credits or inservice points completed in English-for-
1009Speakers-of-Other-Languages training and training in the
1010teaching of reading toward renewal of the teacher's first
1011professional certificate. Such training must not have been
1012included within the degree program, and the teacher's temporary
1013and professional certificates must be issued for consecutive
1014school years.
1015     Section 15.  Paragraph (g) of subsection (12) of section
10161002.33, Florida Statutes, is amended to read:
1017     1002.33  Charter schools.--
1018     (12)  EMPLOYEES OF CHARTER SCHOOLS.--
1019     (g)  A charter school shall employ or contract with
1020employees who have undergone background screening been
1021fingerprinted as provided in s. 1012.32. Members of the
1022governing board of the charter school shall also undergo
1023background screening be fingerprinted in a manner similar to
1024that provided in s. 1012.32.     
1025     Section 16.  Subsection (2) of section 1012.01, Florida
1026Statutes, is amended to read:
1027     1012.01  Definitions.--Specific definitions shall be as
1028follows, and wherever such defined words or terms are used in
1029the Florida K-20 Education Code, they shall be used as follows:
1030     (2)  INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL.--"Instructional personnel"
1031means any K-12 staff member whose function includes the
1032provision of direct instructional services to students.
1033Instructional personnel also includes K-12 personnel whose
1034functions provide direct support in the learning process of
1035students. Included in the classification of instructional
1036personnel are the following K-12 personnel:
1037     (a)  Classroom teachers.--Classroom teachers are staff
1038members assigned the professional activity of instructing
1039students in courses in classroom situations, including basic
1040instruction, exceptional student education, career and technical
1041education, and adult education, including substitute teachers.
1042     (b)  Student personnel services.--Student personnel
1043services include staff members responsible for: advising
1044students with regard to their abilities and aptitudes,
1045educational and occupational opportunities, and personal and
1046social adjustments; providing placement services; performing
1047educational evaluations; and similar functions. Included in this
1048classification are guidance counselors, social workers,
1049occupational/placement specialists, and school psychologists.
1050     (c)  Librarians/media specialists.--Librarians/media
1051specialists are staff members responsible for providing school
1052library media services. These employees are responsible for
1053evaluating, selecting, organizing, and managing media and
1054technology resources, equipment, and related systems;
1055facilitating access to information resources beyond the school;
1056working with teachers to make resources available in the
1057instructional programs; assisting teachers and students in media
1058productions; and instructing students in the location and use of
1059information resources.
1060     (d)  Other instructional staff.--Other instructional staff
1061are staff members who are part of the instructional staff but
1062are not classified in one of the categories specified in
1063paragraphs (a)-(c). Included in this classification are primary
1064specialists, learning resource specialists, instructional
1065trainers, adjunct educators certified pursuant to s. 1012.57,
1066and similar positions.
1067     (e)  Education paraprofessionals.--Education
1068paraprofessionals are individuals who are under the direct
1069supervision of an instructional staff member, aiding the
1070instructional process. Included in this classification are
1071classroom paraprofessionals in regular instruction, exceptional
1072education paraprofessionals, career education paraprofessionals,
1073adult education paraprofessionals, library paraprofessionals,
1074physical education and playground paraprofessionals, and other
1075school-level paraprofessionals.
1076     Section 17.  For the purpose of incorporating the amendment
1077to section 1012.01(2), Florida Statutes, in a reference thereto,
1078paragraph (b) of subsection (1) of section 112.1915, Florida
1079Statutes, is reenacted to read:
1080     112.1915  Teachers and school administrators; death
1081benefits.--Any other provision of law to the contrary
1082notwithstanding:
1083     (1)  As used in this section, the term:
1084     (b)  "Teacher" means any instructional staff personnel as
1085described in s. 1012.01(2).
1086     Section 18.  Paragraphs (a) and (b) of subsection (13) of
1087section 121.091, Florida Statutes, are amended, and, for the
1088purpose of incorporating the amendment to section 1012.01(2),
1089Florida Statutes, in a reference thereto, paragraph (b) of
1090subsection (9) of said section is reenacted, to read:
1091     121.091  Benefits payable under the system.--Benefits may
1092not be paid under this section unless the member has terminated
1093employment as provided in s. 121.021(39)(a) or begun
1094participation in the Deferred Retirement Option Program as
1095provided in subsection (13), and a proper application has been
1096filed in the manner prescribed by the department. The department
1097may cancel an application for retirement benefits when the
1098member or beneficiary fails to timely provide the information
1099and documents required by this chapter and the department's
1100rules. The department shall adopt rules establishing procedures
1101for application for retirement benefits and for the cancellation
1102of such application when the required information or documents
1103are not received.
1104     (9)  EMPLOYMENT AFTER RETIREMENT; LIMITATION.--
1105     (b)1.  Any person who is retired under this chapter, except
1106under the disability retirement provisions of subsection (4),
1107may be reemployed by any private or public employer after
1108retirement and receive retirement benefits and compensation from
1109his or her employer without any limitations, except that a
1110person may not receive both a salary from reemployment with any
1111agency participating in the Florida Retirement System and
1112retirement benefits under this chapter for a period of 12 months
1113immediately subsequent to the date of retirement. However, a
1114DROP participant shall continue employment and receive a salary
1115during the period of participation in the Deferred Retirement
1116Option Program, as provided in subsection (13).
1117     2.  Any person to whom the limitation in subparagraph 1.
1118applies who violates such reemployment limitation and who is
1119reemployed with any agency participating in the Florida
1120Retirement System before completion of the 12-month limitation
1121period shall give timely notice of this fact in writing to the
1122employer and to the division and shall have his or her
1123retirement benefits suspended for the balance of the 12-month
1124limitation period. Any person employed in violation of this
1125paragraph and any employing agency which knowingly employs or
1126appoints such person without notifying the Division of
1127Retirement to suspend retirement benefits shall be jointly and
1128severally liable for reimbursement to the retirement trust fund
1129of any benefits paid during the reemployment limitation period.
1130To avoid liability, such employing agency shall have a written
1131statement from the retiree that he or she is not retired from a
1132state-administered retirement system. Any retirement benefits
1133received while reemployed during this reemployment limitation
1134period shall be repaid to the retirement trust fund, and
1135retirement benefits shall remain suspended until such repayment
1136has been made. Benefits suspended beyond the reemployment
1137limitation shall apply toward repayment of benefits received in
1138violation of the reemployment limitation.
1139     3.  A district school board may reemploy a retired member
1140as a substitute or hourly teacher, education paraprofessional,
1141transportation assistant, bus driver, or food service worker on
1142a noncontractual basis after he or she has been retired for 1
1143calendar month, in accordance with s. 121.021(39). A district
1144school board may reemploy a retired member as instructional
1145personnel, as defined in s. 1012.01(2)(a), on an annual
1146contractual basis after he or she has been retired for 1
1147calendar month, in accordance with s. 121.021(39). Any other
1148retired member who is reemployed within 1 calendar month after
1149retirement shall void his or her application for retirement
1150benefits. District school boards reemploying such teachers,
1151education paraprofessionals, transportation assistants, bus
1152drivers, or food service workers are subject to the retirement
1153contribution required by subparagraph 7.
1154     4.  A community college board of trustees may reemploy a
1155retired member as an adjunct instructor, that is, an instructor
1156who is noncontractual and part-time, or as a participant in a
1157phased retirement program within the Florida Community College
1158System, after he or she has been retired for 1 calendar month,
1159in accordance with s. 121.021(39). Any retired member who is
1160reemployed within 1 calendar month after retirement shall void
1161his or her application for retirement benefits. Boards of
1162trustees reemploying such instructors are subject to the
1163retirement contribution required in subparagraph 7. A retired
1164member may be reemployed as an adjunct instructor for no more
1165than 780 hours during the first 12 months of retirement. Any
1166retired member reemployed for more than 780 hours during the
1167first 12 months of retirement shall give timely notice in
1168writing to the employer and to the division of the date he or
1169she will exceed the limitation. The division shall suspend his
1170or her retirement benefits for the remainder of the first 12
1171months of retirement. Any person employed in violation of this
1172subparagraph and any employing agency which knowingly employs or
1173appoints such person without notifying the Division of
1174Retirement to suspend retirement benefits shall be jointly and
1175severally liable for reimbursement to the retirement trust fund
1176of any benefits paid during the reemployment limitation period.
1177To avoid liability, such employing agency shall have a written
1178statement from the retiree that he or she is not retired from a
1179state-administered retirement system. Any retirement benefits
1180received by a retired member while reemployed in excess of 780
1181hours during the first 12 months of retirement shall be repaid
1182to the Retirement System Trust Fund, and retirement benefits
1183shall remain suspended until repayment is made. Benefits
1184suspended beyond the end of the retired member's first 12 months
1185of retirement shall apply toward repayment of benefits received
1186in violation of the 780-hour reemployment limitation.
1187     5.  The State University System may reemploy a retired
1188member as an adjunct faculty member or as a participant in a
1189phased retirement program within the State University System
1190after the retired member has been retired for 1 calendar month,
1191in accordance with s. 121.021(39). Any retired member who is
1192reemployed within 1 calendar month after retirement shall void
1193his or her application for retirement benefits. The State
1194University System is subject to the retired contribution
1195required in subparagraph 7., as appropriate. A retired member
1196may be reemployed as an adjunct faculty member or a participant
1197in a phased retirement program for no more than 780 hours during
1198the first 12 months of his or her retirement. Any retired member
1199reemployed for more than 780 hours during the first 12 months of
1200retirement shall give timely notice in writing to the employer
1201and to the division of the date he or she will exceed the
1202limitation. The division shall suspend his or her retirement
1203benefits for the remainder of the first 12 months of retirement.
1204Any person employed in violation of this subparagraph and any
1205employing agency which knowingly employs or appoints such person
1206without notifying the Division of Retirement to suspend
1207retirement benefits shall be jointly and severally liable for
1208reimbursement to the retirement trust fund of any benefits paid
1209during the reemployment limitation period. To avoid liability,
1210such employing agency shall have a written statement from the
1211retiree that he or she is not retired from a state-administered
1212retirement system. Any retirement benefits received by a retired
1213member while reemployed in excess of 780 hours during the first
121412 months of retirement shall be repaid to the Retirement System
1215Trust Fund, and retirement benefits shall remain suspended until
1216repayment is made. Benefits suspended beyond the end of the
1217retired member's first 12 months of retirement shall apply
1218toward repayment of benefits received in violation of the 780-
1219hour reemployment limitation.
1220     6.  The Board of Trustees of the Florida School for the
1221Deaf and the Blind may reemploy a retired member as a substitute
1222teacher, substitute residential instructor, or substitute nurse
1223on a noncontractual basis after he or she has been retired for 1
1224calendar month, in accordance with s. 121.021(39). Any retired
1225member who is reemployed within 1 calendar month after
1226retirement shall void his or her application for retirement
1227benefits. The Board of Trustees of the Florida School for the
1228Deaf and the Blind reemploying such teachers, residential
1229instructors, or nurses is subject to the retirement contribution
1230required by subparagraph 7. Reemployment of a retired member as
1231a substitute teacher, substitute residential instructor, or
1232substitute nurse is limited to 780 hours during the first 12
1233months of his or her retirement. Any retired member reemployed
1234for more than 780 hours during the first 12 months of retirement
1235shall give timely notice in writing to the employer and to the
1236division of the date he or she will exceed the limitation. The
1237division shall suspend his or her retirement benefits for the
1238remainder of the first 12 months of retirement. Any person
1239employed in violation of this subparagraph and any employing
1240agency which knowingly employs or appoints such person without
1241notifying the Division of Retirement to suspend retirement
1242benefits shall be jointly and severally liable for reimbursement
1243to the retirement trust fund of any benefits paid during the
1244reemployment limitation period. To avoid liability, such
1245employing agency shall have a written statement from the retiree
1246that he or she is not retired from a state-administered
1247retirement system. Any retirement benefits received by a retired
1248member while reemployed in excess of 780 hours during the first
124912 months of retirement shall be repaid to the Retirement System
1250Trust Fund, and his or her retirement benefits shall remain
1251suspended until payment is made. Benefits suspended beyond the
1252end of the retired member's first 12 months of retirement shall
1253apply toward repayment of benefits received in violation of the
1254780-hour reemployment limitation.
1255     7.  The employment by an employer of any retiree or DROP
1256participant of any state-administered retirement system shall
1257have no effect on the average final compensation or years of
1258creditable service of the retiree or DROP participant. Prior to
1259July 1, 1991, upon employment of any person, other than an
1260elected officer as provided in s. 121.053, who has been retired
1261under any state-administered retirement program, the employer
1262shall pay retirement contributions in an amount equal to the
1263unfunded actuarial liability portion of the employer
1264contribution which would be required for regular members of the
1265Florida Retirement System. Effective July 1, 1991, contributions
1266shall be made as provided in s. 121.122 for retirees with
1267renewed membership or subsection (13) with respect to DROP
1268participants.
1269     8.  Any person who has previously retired and who is
1270holding an elective public office or an appointment to an
1271elective public office eligible for the Elected Officers' Class
1272on or after July 1, 1990, shall be enrolled in the Florida
1273Retirement System as provided in s. 121.053(1)(b) or, if holding
1274an elective public office that does not qualify for the Elected
1275Officers' Class on or after July 1, 1991, shall be enrolled in
1276the Florida Retirement System as provided in s. 121.122, and
1277shall continue to receive retirement benefits as well as
1278compensation for the elected officer's service for as long as he
1279or she remains in elective office. However, any retired member
1280who served in an elective office prior to July 1, 1990,
1281suspended his or her retirement benefit, and had his or her
1282Florida Retirement System membership reinstated shall, upon
1283retirement from such office, have his or her retirement benefit
1284recalculated to include the additional service and compensation
1285earned.
1286     9.  Any person who is holding an elective public office
1287which is covered by the Florida Retirement System and who is
1288concurrently employed in nonelected covered employment may elect
1289to retire while continuing employment in the elective public
1290office, provided that he or she shall be required to terminate
1291his or her nonelected covered employment. Any person who
1292exercises this election shall receive his or her retirement
1293benefits in addition to the compensation of the elective office
1294without regard to the time limitations otherwise provided in
1295this subsection. No person who seeks to exercise the provisions
1296of this subparagraph, as the same existed prior to May 3, 1984,
1297shall be deemed to be retired under those provisions, unless
1298such person is eligible to retire under the provisions of this
1299subparagraph, as amended by chapter 84-11, Laws of Florida.
1300     10.  The limitations of this paragraph apply to
1301reemployment in any capacity with an "employer" as defined in s.
1302121.021(10), irrespective of the category of funds from which
1303the person is compensated.
1304     11.  An employing agency may reemploy a retired member as a
1305firefighter or paramedic after the retired member has been
1306retired for 1 calendar month, in accordance with s. 121.021(39).
1307Any retired member who is reemployed within 1 calendar month
1308after retirement shall void his or her application for
1309retirement benefits. The employing agency reemploying such
1310firefighter or paramedic is subject to the retired contribution
1311required in subparagraph 8. Reemployment of a retired
1312firefighter or paramedic is limited to no more than 780 hours
1313during the first 12 months of his or her retirement. Any retired
1314member reemployed for more than 780 hours during the first 12
1315months of retirement shall give timely notice in writing to the
1316employer and to the division of the date he or she will exceed
1317the limitation. The division shall suspend his or her retirement
1318benefits for the remainder of the first 12 months of retirement.
1319Any person employed in violation of this subparagraph and any
1320employing agency which knowingly employs or appoints such person
1321without notifying the Division of Retirement to suspend
1322retirement benefits shall be jointly and severally liable for
1323reimbursement to the Retirement System Trust Fund of any
1324benefits paid during the reemployment limitation period. To
1325avoid liability, such employing agency shall have a written
1326statement from the retiree that he or she is not retired from a
1327state-administered retirement system. Any retirement benefits
1328received by a retired member while reemployed in excess of 780
1329hours during the first 12 months of retirement shall be repaid
1330to the Retirement System Trust Fund, and retirement benefits
1331shall remain suspended until repayment is made. Benefits
1332suspended beyond the end of the retired member's first 12 months
1333of retirement shall apply toward repayment of benefits received
1334in violation of the 780-hour reemployment limitation.
1335     (13)  DEFERRED RETIREMENT OPTION PROGRAM.--In general, and
1336subject to the provisions of this section, the Deferred
1337Retirement Option Program, hereinafter referred to as the DROP,
1338is a program under which an eligible member of the Florida
1339Retirement System may elect to participate, deferring receipt of
1340retirement benefits while continuing employment with his or her
1341Florida Retirement System employer. The deferred monthly
1342benefits shall accrue in the System Trust Fund on behalf of the
1343participant, plus interest compounded monthly, for the specified
1344period of the DROP participation, as provided in paragraph (c).
1345Upon termination of employment, the participant shall receive
1346the total DROP benefits and begin to receive the previously
1347determined normal retirement benefits. Participation in the DROP
1348does not guarantee employment for the specified period of DROP.
1349Participation in the DROP by an eligible member beyond the
1350initial 60-month period as authorized in this subsection shall
1351be on an annual contractual basis for all participants.
1352     (a)  Eligibility of member to participate in the DROP.--All
1353active Florida Retirement System members in a regularly
1354established position, and all active members of either the
1355Teachers' Retirement System established in chapter 238 or the
1356State and County Officers' and Employees' Retirement System
1357established in chapter 122 which systems are consolidated within
1358the Florida Retirement System under s. 121.011, are eligible to
1359elect participation in the DROP provided that:
1360     1.  The member is not a renewed member of the Florida
1361Retirement System under s. 121.122, or a member of the State
1362Community College System Optional Retirement Program under s.
1363121.051, the Senior Management Service Optional Annuity Program
1364under s. 121.055, or the optional retirement program for the
1365State University System under s. 121.35.
1366     2.  Except as provided in subparagraph 6., election to
1367participate is made within 12 months immediately following the
1368date on which the member first reaches normal retirement date,
1369or, for a member who reaches normal retirement date based on
1370service before he or she reaches age 62, or age 55 for Special
1371Risk Class members, election to participate may be deferred to
1372the 12 months immediately following the date the member attains
137357, or age 52 for Special Risk Class members. For a member who
1374first reached normal retirement date or the deferred eligibility
1375date described above prior to the effective date of this
1376section, election to participate shall be made within 12 months
1377after the effective date of this section. A member who fails to
1378make an election within such 12-month limitation period shall
1379forfeit all rights to participate in the DROP. The member shall
1380advise his or her employer and the division in writing of the
1381date on which the DROP shall begin. Such beginning date may be
1382subsequent to the 12-month election period, but must be within
1383the 60-month or, with respect to members who are instructional
1384personnel employed by the Florida School for the Deaf and the
1385Blind and who have received authorization by the Board of
1386Trustees of the Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind to
1387participate in the DROP beyond 60 months, or who are
1388instructional personnel as defined in s. 1012.01(2)(a)-(d) in
1389grades K-12 and who have received authorization by the district
1390school superintendent or, effective June 1, 2004, by the
1391director or principal of a developmental research school as
1392described in s. 1002.32 to participate in the DROP beyond 60
1393months, the 96-month limitation period as provided in
1394subparagraph (b)1. When establishing eligibility of the member
1395to participate in the DROP for the 60-month or, with respect to
1396members who are instructional personnel employed by the Florida
1397School for the Deaf and the Blind and who have received
1398authorization by the Board of Trustees of the Florida School for
1399the Deaf and the Blind to participate in the DROP beyond 60
1400months, or who are instructional personnel as defined in s.
14011012.01(2)(a)-(d) in grades K-12 and who have received
1402authorization by the district school superintendent or,
1403effective June 1, 2004, by the director or principal of a
1404developmental research school as described in s. 1002.32 to
1405participate in the DROP beyond 60 months, the 96-month maximum
1406participation period, the member may elect to include or exclude
1407any optional service credit purchased by the member from the
1408total service used to establish the normal retirement date. A
1409member with dual normal retirement dates shall be eligible to
1410elect to participate in DROP within 12 months after attaining
1411normal retirement date in either class.
1412     3.  The employer of a member electing to participate in the
1413DROP, or employers if dually employed, shall acknowledge in
1414writing to the division the date the member's participation in
1415the DROP begins and the date the member's employment and DROP
1416participation will terminate.
1417     4.  Simultaneous employment of a participant by additional
1418Florida Retirement System employers subsequent to the
1419commencement of participation in the DROP shall be permissible
1420provided such employers acknowledge in writing a DROP
1421termination date no later than the participant's existing
1422termination date or the 60-month limitation period as provided
1423in subparagraph (b)1.
1424     5.  A DROP participant may change employers while
1425participating in the DROP, subject to the following:
1426     a.  A change of employment must take place without a break
1427in service so that the member receives salary for each month of
1428continuous DROP participation. If a member receives no salary
1429during a month, DROP participation shall cease unless the
1430employer verifies a continuation of the employment relationship
1431for such participant pursuant to s. 121.021(39)(b).
1432     b.  Such participant and new employer shall notify the
1433division on forms required by the division as to the identity of
1434the new employer.
1435     c.  The new employer shall acknowledge, in writing, the
1436participant's DROP termination date, which may be extended but
1437not beyond the original 60-month or, with respect to members who
1438are instructional personnel employed by the Florida School for
1439the Deaf and the Blind and who have received authorization by
1440the Board of Trustees of the Florida School for the Deaf and the
1441Blind to participate in the DROP beyond 60 months, or who are
1442instructional personnel as defined in s. 1012.01(2)(a)-(d) in
1443grades K-12 and who have received authorization by the district
1444school superintendent or, effective June 1, 2004, by the
1445director or principal of a developmental research school as
1446described in s. 1002.32 to participate in the DROP beyond 60
1447months, the 96-month period provided in subparagraph (b)1.,
1448shall acknowledge liability for any additional retirement
1449contributions and interest required if the participant fails to
1450timely terminate employment, and shall be subject to the
1451adjustment required in sub-subparagraph (c)5.d.
1452     6.  Effective July 1, 2001, for instructional personnel as
1453defined in s. 1012.01(2), election to participate in the DROP
1454shall be made at any time following the date on which the member
1455first reaches normal retirement date. The member shall advise
1456his or her employer and the division in writing of the date on
1457which the Deferred Retirement Option Program shall begin. When
1458establishing eligibility of the member to participate in the
1459DROP for the 60-month or, with respect to members who are
1460instructional personnel employed by the Florida School for the
1461Deaf and the Blind and who have received authorization by the
1462Board of Trustees of the Florida School for the Deaf and the
1463Blind to participate in the DROP beyond 60 months, or who are
1464instructional personnel as defined in s. 1012.01(2)(a)-(d) in
1465grades K-12 and who have received authorization by the district
1466school superintendent or, effective June 1, 2004, by the
1467director or principal of a developmental research school as
1468described in s. 1002.32 to participate in the DROP beyond 60
1469months, the 96-month maximum participation period, as provided
1470in subparagraph (b)1., the member may elect to include or
1471exclude any optional service credit purchased by the member from
1472the total service used to establish the normal retirement date.
1473A member with dual normal retirement dates shall be eligible to
1474elect to participate in either class.
1475     (b)  Participation in the DROP.--
1476     1.  An eligible member may elect to participate in the DROP
1477for a period not to exceed a maximum of 60 calendar months or,
1478with respect to members who are instructional personnel employed
1479by the Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind and who have
1480received authorization by the Board of Trustees of the Florida
1481School for the Deaf and the Blind to participate in the DROP
1482beyond 60 months, or who are instructional personnel as defined
1483in s. 1012.01(2)(a)-(d) in grades K-12 and who have received
1484authorization by the district school superintendent or,
1485effective June 1, 2004, by the director or principal of a
1486developmental research school as described in s. 1002.32 to
1487participate in the DROP beyond 60 calendar months, 96 calendar
1488months immediately following the date on which the member first
1489reaches his or her normal retirement date or the date to which
1490he or she is eligible to defer his or her election to
1491participate as provided in subparagraph (a)2. However, a member
1492who has reached normal retirement date prior to the effective
1493date of the DROP shall be eligible to participate in the DROP
1494for a period of time not to exceed 60 calendar months or, with
1495respect to members who are instructional personnel employed by
1496the Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind and who have
1497received authorization by the Board of Trustees of the Florida
1498School for the Deaf and the Blind to participate in the DROP
1499beyond 60 months, or who are instructional personnel as defined
1500in s. 1012.01(2)(a)-(d) in grades K-12 and who have received
1501authorization by the district school superintendent or,
1502effective June 1, 2004, by the director or principal of a
1503developmental research school as described in s. 1002.32 to
1504participate in the DROP beyond 60 calendar months, 96 calendar
1505months immediately following the effective date of the DROP,
1506except a member of the Special Risk Class who has reached normal
1507retirement date prior to the effective date of the DROP and
1508whose total accrued value exceeds 75 percent of average final
1509compensation as of his or her effective date of retirement shall
1510be eligible to participate in the DROP for no more than 36
1511calendar months immediately following the effective date of the
1512DROP.
1513     2.  Upon deciding to participate in the DROP, the member
1514shall submit, on forms required by the division:
1515     a.  A written election to participate in the DROP;
1516     b.  Selection of the DROP participation and termination
1517dates, which satisfy the limitations stated in paragraph (a) and
1518subparagraph 1. Such termination date shall be in a binding
1519letter of resignation with the employer, establishing a deferred
1520termination date. The member may change the termination date
1521within the limitations of subparagraph 1., but only with the
1522written approval of his or her employer;
1523     c.  A properly completed DROP application for service
1524retirement as provided in this section; and
1525     d.  Any other information required by the division.
1526     3.  The DROP participant shall be a retiree under the
1527Florida Retirement System for all purposes, except for paragraph
1528(5)(f) and subsection (9) and ss. 112.3173, 112.363, 121.053,
1529and 121.122. However, participation in the DROP does not alter
1530the participant's employment status and such employee shall not
1531be deemed retired from employment until his or her deferred
1532resignation is effective and termination occurs as provided in
1533s. 121.021(39).
1534     4.  Elected officers shall be eligible to participate in
1535the DROP subject to the following:
1536     a.  An elected officer who reaches normal retirement date
1537during a term of office may defer the election to participate in
1538the DROP until the next succeeding term in that office. Such
1539elected officer who exercises this option may participate in the
1540DROP for up to 60 calendar months or a period of no longer than
1541such succeeding term of office, whichever is less.
1542     b.  An elected or a nonelected participant may run for a
1543term of office while participating in DROP and, if elected,
1544extend the DROP termination date accordingly, except, however,
1545if such additional term of office exceeds the 60-month
1546limitation established in subparagraph 1., and the officer does
1547not resign from office within such 60-month limitation, the
1548retirement and the participant's DROP shall be null and void as
1549provided in sub-subparagraph (c)5.d.
1550     c.  An elected officer who is dually employed and elects to
1551participate in DROP shall be required to satisfy the definition
1552of termination within the 60-month or, with respect to members
1553who are instructional personnel employed by the Florida School
1554for the Deaf and the Blind and who have received authorization
1555by the Board of Trustees of the Florida School for the Deaf and
1556the Blind to participate in the DROP beyond 60 months, or who
1557are instructional personnel as defined in s. 1012.01(2)(a)-(d)
1558in grades K-12 and who have received authorization by the
1559district school superintendent or, effective June 1, 2004, by
1560the director or principal of a developmental research school as
1561described in s. 1002.32 to participate in the DROP beyond 60
1562months, the 96-month limitation period as provided in
1563subparagraph 1. for the nonelected position and may continue
1564employment as an elected officer as provided in s. 121.053. The
1565elected officer will be enrolled as a renewed member in the
1566Elected Officers' Class or the Regular Class, as provided in ss.
1567121.053 and 121.22, on the first day of the month after
1568termination of employment in the nonelected position and
1569termination of DROP. Distribution of the DROP benefits shall be
1570made as provided in paragraph (c).
1571     Section 19.  For the purpose of incorporating the amendment
1572to section 1012.01(2), Florida Statutes, in a reference thereto,
1573paragraph (b) of subsection (2) of section 1011.685, Florida
1574Statutes, is reenacted to read:
1575     1011.685  Class size reduction; operating categorical
1576fund.--
1577     (2)  Class size reduction operating categorical funds shall
1578be used by school districts for the following:
1579     (b)  For any lawful operating expenditure, if the district
1580has met the constitutional maximums identified in s. 1003.03(1)
1581or the reduction of two students per year required by s.
15821003.03(2); however, priority shall be given to increase
1583salaries of classroom teachers as defined in s. 1012.01(2)(a)
1584and to implement the salary career ladder defined in s.
15851012.231.
1586     Section 20.  For the purpose of incorporating the amendment
1587to section 1012.01(2), Florida Statutes, in references thereto,
1588paragraphs (a) and (b) of subsection (2) of section 1012.74,
1589Florida Statutes, are reenacted to read:
1590     1012.74  Florida educators professional liability insurance
1591protection.--
1592     (2)(a)  Educator professional liability coverage for all
1593instructional personnel, as defined by s. 1012.01(2), who are
1594full-time personnel, as defined by the district school board
1595policy, shall be provided by specific appropriations under the
1596General Appropriations Act.
1597     (b)  Educator professional liability coverage shall be
1598extended at cost to all instructional personnel, as defined by
1599s. 1012.01(2), who are part-time personnel, as defined by the
1600district school board policy, and choose to participate in the
1601state-provided program.
1602     Section 21.  This act shall take effect upon becoming a
1603law.


CODING: Words stricken are deletions; words underlined are additions.
Site Map
Session:   Bills ·   Calendars ·   Bound Journals ·   Citator ·   Search ·   Appropriations ·   Redistricting ·   Bill Information Reports
Committee Publications
Historical Information
Statutes:   Introduction ·   View Statutes ·   Search Statutes
Flsenate.gov
Disclaimer: The information on this system is unverified. The journals or printed bills of the respective chambers should be consulted for official purposes.    Copyright © 2000-2020 State of Florida.     Privacy Statement     Contact Us     Get Acrobat Reader