December 10, 2019
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The Florida Statutes

The 2001 Florida Statutes

Title XXXVII
Insurance
Chapter 627
Insurance Rates And Contracts
View Entire Chapter
Section 627.311, Florida Statutes 2001

627.311  Joint underwriters and joint reinsurers.--

(1)  Every group, association, or other organization of insurers which engages in joint underwritings or joint reinsurance shall be subject to regulation with respect thereto as herein provided, subject, however, with respect to joint underwriting, to all other provisions of this chapter and, with respect to joint reinsurance, to ss. 624.15 and 624.3161.

(2)  If the department finds that any activity or practice of any such group, association, or other organization is unfair or unreasonable or otherwise inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter, it may issue a written order specifying in what respects such activity or practice is unfair or unreasonable or otherwise inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter, and requiring the discontinuance of such activity or practice.

(3)  The department may, after consultation with insurers licensed to write automobile insurance in this state, approve a joint underwriting plan for purposes of equitable apportionment or sharing among insurers of automobile liability insurance and other motor vehicle insurance, as an alternate to the plan required in s. 627.351(1). All insurers authorized to write automobile insurance in this state shall subscribe to the plan and participate therein. The plan shall be subject to continuous review by the department which may at any time disapprove the entire plan or any part thereof if it determines that conditions have changed since prior approval and that in view of the purposes of the plan changes are warranted. Any disapproval by the department shall be subject to the provisions of chapter 120. If adopted, the plan and the association created under the plan:

(a)  Must be subject to all provisions of s. 627.351(1), except apportionment of applicants.

(b)  May provide for one or more designated insurers, able and willing to provide policy and claims service, to act on behalf of all other insurers to provide insurance for applicants who are in good faith entitled to, but unable to, procure insurance through the voluntary insurance market at standard rates.

(c)  Must provide that designated insurers will issue policies of insurance and provide policyholder and claims service on behalf of all insurers for the joint underwriting association.

(d)  Must provide for the equitable apportionment among insurers of losses and expenses incurred.

(e)  Must provide that the joint underwriting association will operate subject to the supervision and approval of a board of governors consisting of 11 individuals, including 1 who will be elected as chair. Five members of the board must be appointed by the Insurance Commissioner. Two of the commissioner's appointees must be chosen from the insurance industry. Any board member appointed by the Insurance Commissioner may be removed and replaced by her or him at any time without cause. Six members of the board must be appointed by the participating insurers, two of whom must be from the insurance agents' associations. All board members, including the chair, must be appointed to serve for 2-year terms beginning annually on a date designated by the plan.

(f)  Must provide that an agent appointed to a servicing carrier must be a licensed general lines agent of an insurer which is authorized to write automobile liability and physical damage insurance in the state and which is actively writing such coverage in the county in which the agent is located, or the immediately adjoining counties, or an agent who places a volume of other property and casualty insurance in an amount equal to the premium volume placed with the Florida Joint Underwriting Association. The department may, however, determine that an agent may be appointed to a servicing carrier if, after public hearing, the department finds that consumers in the agent's operating area would not have adequate and reasonable access to the purchase of automobile insurance if the agent were not appointed to a servicing carrier.

(g)  Must make available noncancelable coverage as provided in s. 627.7275(2).

(h)  Must provide for the furnishing of a list of insureds and their mailing addresses upon the request of a member of the association or an insurance agent licensed to place business with an association member. The list must indicate whether the insured is currently receiving a good driver discount from the association. The plan may charge a reasonable fee to cover the cost incurred in providing the list.

(i)  Must not provide a renewal credit or discount or any other inducement designed to retain a risk.

(j)  Must not provide any other good driver credit or discount that is not actuarially sound. In addition to other criteria that the plan may specify, to be eligible for a good driver credit, an insured must not have any criminal traffic violations within the most recent 36-month period preceding the date the discount is received.

(k)  Shall have no liability, and no cause of action of any nature shall arise against, any member insurer or its agents or employees, agents or employees of the association, members of the board of governors of the association, or the department or its representatives, for any action taken by them in the performance of their duties or responsibilities under this subsection. Such immunity does not apply to actions for or arising out of breach of any contract or agreement pertaining to insurance, or any willful tort.

(l)1.  Shall be subject to the public records requirements of chapter 119 and the public meeting requirements of s. 286.011. However, the following records of the Florida Automobile Joint Underwriting Association are confidential and exempt from s. 119.07(1) and s. 24(a), Art. I of the State Constitution:

a.  Underwriting files, except that a policyholder or an applicant shall have access to his or her own underwriting files.

b.  Claims files, until termination of all litigation and settlement of all claims arising out of the same incident, although portions of the claims files may remain exempt, as otherwise provided by law. Confidential and exempt claims file records may be released to other governmental agencies upon written request and demonstration of need; such records held by the receiving agency remain confidential and exempt as provided by this paragraph.

c.  Records obtained or generated by an internal auditor pursuant to a routine audit, until the audit is completed or, if the audit is conducted as part of an investigation, until the investigation is closed or ceases to be active. An investigation is considered "active" while the investigation is being conducted with a reasonable, good faith belief that it could lead to the filing of administrative, civil, or criminal proceedings.

d.  Matters reasonably encompassed in privileged attorney-client communications.

e.  Proprietary information licensed to the association under contract when the contract provides for the confidentiality of such proprietary information.

f.  All information relating to the medical condition or medical status of an association employee which is not relevant to the employee's capacity to perform his or her duties, except as otherwise provided in this paragraph. Information which is exempt shall include, but is not limited to, information relating to workers' compensation, insurance benefits, and retirement or disability benefits.

g.  All records relative to an employee's participation in an employee assistance program designed to assist any employee who has a behavioral or medical disorder, substance abuse problem, or emotional difficulty which affects the employee's job performance, except as otherwise provided in s. 112.0455(11).

h.  Information relating to negotiations for financing, reinsurance, depopulation, or contractual services, until the conclusion of the negotiations.

i.  Minutes of closed meetings regarding underwriting files, and minutes of closed meetings regarding an open claims file until termination of all litigation and settlement of all claims with regard to that claim, except that information otherwise confidential or exempt by law must be redacted.

When an authorized insurer is considering underwriting a risk insured by the association, relevant underwriting files and confidential claims files may be released to the insurer provided the insurer agrees in writing, notarized and under oath, to maintain the confidentiality of such files. When a file is transferred to an insurer, that file is no longer a public record because it is not held by an agency subject to the provisions of the public records law. The association may make the following information obtained from underwriting files and confidential claims files available to licensed general lines insurance agents: name, address, and telephone number of the automobile owner or insured; location of the risk; rating information; loss history; and policy type. The receiving licensed general lines insurance agent must retain the confidentiality of the information received.

2.  Portions of meetings of the Florida Automobile Joint Underwriting Association during which confidential underwriting files or confidential open claims files are discussed are exempt from the provisions of s. 286.011 and s. 24(b), Art. I of the State Constitution. All portions of association meetings which are closed to the public shall be recorded by a court reporter. The court reporter shall record the times of commencement and termination of the meeting, all discussion and proceedings, the names of all persons present at any time, and the names of all persons speaking. No portion of any closed meeting shall be off the record. Subject to the provisions of this paragraph and s. 119.07(2)(a), the court reporter's notes of any closed meeting shall be retained by the association for a minimum of 5 years. A copy of the transcript, less any exempt matters, of any closed meeting during which claims are discussed shall become public as to individual claims after settlement of the claim.

This paragraph is subject to the Open Government Sunset Review Act of 1995 in accordance with s. 119.15, and shall stand repealed on October 2, 2003, unless reviewed and saved from repeal through reenactment by the Legislature.

(4)(a)  Effective upon this act becoming a law, the department shall, after consultation with insurers, approve a joint underwriting plan of insurers which shall operate as a nonprofit entity. For the purposes of this subsection, the term "insurer" includes group self-insurance funds authorized by s. 624.4621, commercial self-insurance funds authorized by s. 624.462, assessable mutual insurers authorized under s. 628.6011, and insurers licensed to write workers' compensation and employer's liability insurance in this state. The purpose of the plan is to provide workers' compensation and employer's liability insurance to applicants who are required by law to maintain workers' compensation and employer's liability insurance and who are in good faith entitled to but who are unable to purchase such insurance through the voluntary market. The joint underwriting plan shall issue policies beginning January 1, 1994. The plan must have actuarially sound rates that assure that the plan is self-supporting.

(b)  The operation of the plan is subject to the supervision of a 13-member board of governors. The board of governors shall be comprised of:

1.  Five of the 20 domestic insurers, as defined in s. 624.06(1), having the largest voluntary direct premiums written in this state for workers' compensation and employer's liability insurance, which shall be elected by those 20 domestic insurers;

2.  Five of the 20 foreign insurers as defined in s. 624.06(2) having the largest voluntary direct premiums written in this state for workers' compensation and employer's liability insurance, which shall be elected by those 20 foreign insurers;

3.  One person, who shall serve as the chair, appointed by the Insurance Commissioner;

4.  One person appointed by the largest property and casualty insurance agents' association in this state; and

5.  The consumer advocate appointed under s. 627.0613 or the consumer advocate's designee.

Each board member shall serve a 4-year term and may serve consecutive terms. No board member shall be an insurer which provides service to the plan or which has an affiliate which provides services to the plan or which is serviced by a service company or third-party administrator which provides services to the plan or which has an affiliate which provides services to the plan. The minutes, audits, and procedures of the board of governors are subject to chapter 119.

(c)  The operation of the plan shall be governed by a plan of operation that is prepared at the direction of the board of governors. The plan of operation may be changed at any time by the board of governors or upon request of the department. The plan of operation and all changes thereto are subject to the approval of the department. The plan of operation shall:

1.  Authorize the board to engage in the activities necessary to implement this subsection, including, but not limited to, borrowing money.

2.  Develop criteria for eligibility for coverage by the plan, including, but not limited to, documented rejection by at least two insurers which reasonably assures that insureds covered under the plan are unable to acquire coverage in the voluntary market. Any insured may voluntarily elect to accept coverage from an insurer for a premium equal to or greater than the plan premium if the insurer writing the coverage adheres to the provisions of s. 627.171.

3.  Require notice from the agent to the insured at the time of the application for coverage that the application is for coverage with the plan and that coverage may be available through an insurer, group self-insurers' fund, commercial self-insurance fund, or assessable mutual insurer through another agent at a lower cost.

4.  Establish programs to encourage insurers to provide coverage to applicants of the plan in the voluntary market and to insureds of the plan, including, but not limited to:

a.  Establishing procedures for an insurer to use in notifying the plan of the insurer's desire to provide coverage to applicants to the plan or existing insureds of the plan and in describing the types of risks in which the insurer is interested. The description of the desired risks must be on a form developed by the plan.

b.  Developing forms and procedures that provide an insurer with the information necessary to determine whether the insurer wants to write particular applicants to the plan or insureds of the plan.

c.  Developing procedures for notice to the plan and the applicant to the plan or insured of the plan that an insurer will insure the applicant or the insured of the plan, and notice of the cost of the coverage offered; and developing procedures for the selection of an insuring entity by the applicant or insured of the plan.

d.  Provide for a market-assistance plan to assist in the placement of employers. All applications for coverage in the plan received 45 days before the effective date for coverage shall be processed through the market-assistance plan. A market-assistance plan specifically designed to serve the needs of small good policyholders as defined by the board must be finalized by January 1, 1994.

5.  Provide for policy and claims services to the insureds of the plan of the nature and quality provided for insureds in the voluntary market.

6.  Provide for the review of applications for coverage with the plan for reasonableness and accuracy, using any available historic information regarding the insured.

7.  Provide for procedures for auditing insureds of the plan which are based on reasonable business judgment and are designed to maximize the likelihood that the plan will collect the appropriate premiums.

8.  Authorize the plan to terminate the coverage of and refuse future coverage for any insured that submits a fraudulent application to the plan or provides fraudulent or grossly erroneous records to the plan or to any service provider of the plan in conjunction with the activities of the plan.

9.  Establish service standards for agents who submit business to the plan.

10.  Establish criteria and procedures to prohibit any agent who does not adhere to the established service standards from placing business with the plan or receiving, directly or indirectly, any commissions for business placed with the plan.

11.  Provide for the establishment of reasonable safety programs for all insureds in the plan.

12.  Authorize the plan to terminate the coverage of and refuse future coverage to any insured who fails to pay premiums or surcharges when due; who, at the time of application, is delinquent in payments of workers' compensation or employer's liability insurance premiums or surcharges owed to an insurer, group self-insurers' fund, commercial self-insurance fund, or assessable mutual insurer licensed to write such coverage in this state; or who refuses to substantially comply with any safety programs recommended by the plan.

13.  Authorize the board of governors to provide the services required by the plan through staff employed by the plan, through reasonably compensated service providers who contract with the plan to provide services as specified by the board of governors, or through a combination of employees and service providers.

14.  Provide for service standards for service providers, methods of determining adherence to those service standards, incentives and disincentives for service, and procedures for terminating contracts for service providers that fail to adhere to service standards.

15.  Provide procedures for selecting service providers and standards for qualification as a service provider that reasonably assure that any service provider selected will continue to operate as an ongoing concern and is capable of providing the specified services in the manner required.

16.  Provide for reasonable accounting and data-reporting practices.

17.  Provide for annual review of costs associated with the administration and servicing of the policies issued by the plan to determine alternatives by which costs can be reduced.

18.  Authorize the acquisition of such excess insurance or reinsurance as is consistent with the purposes of the plan.

19.  Provide for an annual report to the department on a date specified by the department and containing such information as the department reasonably requires.

20.  Establish multiple rating plans for various classifications of risk which reflect risk of loss, hazard grade, actual losses, size of premium, and compliance with loss control. At least one of such plans must be a preferred-rating plan to accommodate small-premium policyholders with good experience as defined in sub-subparagraph 22.a.

21.  Establish agent commission schedules.

22.  Establish three subplans as follows:

a.  Subplan "A" must include those insureds whose annual premium does not exceed $2,500 and who have neither incurred any lost-time claims nor incurred medical-only claims exceeding 50 percent of their premium for the immediate 2 years.

b.  Subplan "B" must include insureds that are employers identified by the board of governors as high-risk employers due solely to the nature of the operations being performed by those insureds and for whom no market exists in the voluntary market, and whose experience modifications are less than 1.00.

c.  Subplan "C" must include all other insureds within the plan.

(d)  The plan must be funded through actuarially sound premiums charged to insureds of the plan. The plan may issue assessable policies only to those insureds in subplan "C." Those assessable policies must be clearly identified as assessable by containing, in contrasting color and in not less than 10-point type, the following statements: "This is an assessable policy. If the plan is unable to pay its obligations, policyholders will be required to contribute on a pro rata earned premium basis the money necessary to meet any assessment levied." The plan may issue assessable policies with differing terms and conditions to different groups within the plan when a reasonable basis exists for the differentiation. The plan may offer rating, dividend plans, and other plans to encourage loss prevention programs.

(e)  The plan shall establish and use its rates and rating plans, and the plan may establish and use changes in rating plans at any time, but no more frequently than two times per any rating class for any calendar year. By December 1, 1993, and December 1 of each year thereafter, the board shall establish and use actuarially sound rates for use by the plan to assure that the plan is self-funding while those rates are in effect. Such rates and rating plans must be filed with the department within 30 calendar days after their effective dates, and shall be considered a "use and file" filing. Any disapproval by the department must have an effective date that is at least 60 days from the date of disapproval of the rates and rating plan and must have prospective effect only. The plan may not be subject to any order by the department to return to policyholders any portion of the rates disapproved by the department. The department may not disapprove any rates or rating plans unless it demonstrates that such rates and rating plans are excessive, inadequate, or unfairly discriminatory.

(f)  No later than June 1 of each year, the plan shall obtain an independent actuarial certification of the results of the operations of the plan for prior years, and shall furnish a copy of the certification to the department. If, after the effective date of the plan, the projected ultimate incurred losses and expenses and dividends for prior years exceed collected premiums, accrued net investment income, and prior assessments for prior years, the certification is subject to review and approval by the department before it becomes final.

(g)  Whenever a deficit exists, the plan shall, within 90 days, provide the department with a program to eliminate the deficit within a reasonable time. The deficit may be funded through increased premiums charged to insureds of the plan for subsequent years, through the use of policyholder surplus attributable to any year, and through assessments on insureds in the plan if the plan uses assessable policies.

(h)  Any premium or assessments collected by the plan in excess of the amount necessary to fund projected ultimate incurred losses and expenses of the plan and not paid to insureds of the plan in conjunction with loss prevention or dividend programs shall be retained by the plan for future use.

(i)  The decisions of the board of governors do not constitute final agency action and are not subject to chapter 120.

(j)  Policies for insureds shall be issued by the plan.

(k)  The plan created under this subsection is liable only for payment for losses arising under policies issued by the plan with dates of accidents occurring on or after January 1, 1994.

(l)  Plan losses are the sole and exclusive responsibility of the plan, and payment for such losses must be funded in accordance with this subsection and must not come, directly or indirectly, from insurers or any guaranty association for such insurers.

(m)  Each joint underwriting plan or association created under this section is not a state agency, board, or commission. However, for the purposes of s. 199.183(1) only, the joint underwriting plan is a political subdivision of the state and is exempt from the corporate income tax.

(n)  Each joint underwriting plan or association may elect to pay premium taxes on the premiums received on its behalf or may elect to have the member insurers to whom the premiums are allocated pay the premium taxes if the member insurer had written the policy. The joint underwriting plan or association shall notify the member insurers and the Department of Revenue by January 15 of each year of its election for the same year. As used in this paragraph, the term "premiums received" means the consideration for insurance, by whatever name called, but does not include any policy assessment or surcharge received by the joint underwriting association as a result of apportioning losses or deficits of the association pursuant to this section.

(o)  Effective midnight, December 31, 1993, the Florida Workers' Compensation Insurance Plan, administered by the National Council on Compensation Insurance, shall terminate, except with respect to workers' compensation policies issued pursuant to such Florida Workers' Compensation Insurance Plan with inception dates on or before December 31, 1993.

(p)  Neither the plan nor any member of the board of governors is liable for monetary damages to any person for any statement, vote, decision, or failure to act, regarding the management or policies of the plan, unless:

1.  The member breached or failed to perform her or his duties as a member; and

2.  The member's breach of, or failure to perform, duties constitutes:

a.  A violation of the criminal law, unless the member had reasonable cause to believe her or his conduct was not unlawful. A judgment or other final adjudication against a member in any criminal proceeding for violation of the criminal law estops that member from contesting the fact that her or his breach, or failure to perform, constitutes a violation of the criminal law; but does not estop the member from establishing that she or he had reasonable cause to believe that her or his conduct was lawful or had no reasonable cause to believe that her or his conduct was unlawful;

b.  A transaction from which the member derived an improper personal benefit, either directly or indirectly; or

c.  Recklessness or any act or omission that was committed in bad faith or with malicious purpose or in a manner exhibiting wanton and willful disregard of human rights, safety, or property. For purposes of this sub-subparagraph, the term "recklessness" means the acting, or omission to act, in conscious disregard of a risk:

(I)  Known, or so obvious that it should have been known, to the member; and

(II)  Known to the member, or so obvious that it should have been known, to be so great as to make it highly probable that harm would follow from such act or omission.

(q)  No insurer shall provide workers' compensation and employer's liability insurance to any person who is delinquent in the payment of premiums, assessments, penalties, or surcharges owed to the plan.

(5)  As used in this section and ss. 215.555 and 627.351, the term "collateral protection insurance" means commercial property insurance of which a creditor is the primary beneficiary and policyholder and which protects or covers an interest of the creditor arising out of a credit transaction secured by real or personal property. Initiation of such coverage is triggered by the mortgagor's failure to maintain insurance coverage as required by the mortgage or other lending document. Collateral protection insurance is not residential coverage.

History.--s. 441, ch. 59-205; ss. 13, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 1, ch. 74-51; s. 3, ch. 76-168; s. 16, ch. 77-290; s. 1, ch. 77-457; s. 21, ch. 78-95; s. 107, ch. 79-40; ss. 1, 2, 4, ch. 79-394; s. 238, ch. 79-400; ss. 1, 2, ch. 80-360; ss. 1, 2, ch. 80-362; ss. 2, 3, ch. 81-318; ss. 357, 809(2nd), ch. 82-243; ss. 49, 79, ch. 82-386; s. 34, ch. 89-289; s. 4, ch. 91-106; s. 64, ch. 91-108; ss. 25, 114, ch. 92-318; s. 98, ch. 93-415; s. 7, ch. 97-93; s. 321, ch. 97-102; s. 4, ch. 97-214; s. 3, ch. 98-173; s. 1, ch. 98-315; s. 66, ch. 99-5; s. 1, ch. 99-237; s. 13, ch. 99-240; s. 8, ch. 2000-150; s. 35, ch. 2001-91.

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