January 26, 2021
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The Florida Statutes

The 2004 Florida Statutes

Title XLVII
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE AND CORRECTIONS
Chapter 985
DELINQUENCY; INTERSTATE COMPACT ON JUVENILES
View Entire Chapter
Section 985.231, Florida Statutes 2004

985.231  Powers of disposition in delinquency cases.--

(1)(a)  The court that has jurisdiction of an adjudicated delinquent child may, by an order stating the facts upon which a determination of a sanction and rehabilitative program was made at the disposition hearing:

1.  Place the child in a probation program or a postcommitment probation program under the supervision of an authorized agent of the Department of Juvenile Justice or of any other person or agency specifically authorized and appointed by the court, whether in the child's own home, in the home of a relative of the child, or in some other suitable place under such reasonable conditions as the court may direct. A probation program for an adjudicated delinquent child must include a penalty component such as restitution in money or in kind, community service, a curfew, revocation or suspension of the driver's license of the child, or other nonresidential punishment appropriate to the offense and must also include a rehabilitative program component such as a requirement of participation in substance abuse treatment or in school or other educational program. If the child is attending or is eligible to attend public school and the court finds that the victim or a sibling of the victim in the case is attending or may attend the same school as the child, the court placement order shall include a finding pursuant to the proceedings described in s. 985.23(1)(d). Upon the recommendation of the department at the time of disposition, or subsequent to disposition pursuant to the filing of a petition alleging a violation of the child's conditions of postcommitment probation, the court may order the child to submit to random testing for the purpose of detecting and monitoring the use of alcohol or controlled substances.

a.  A restrictiveness level classification scale for levels of supervision shall be provided by the department, taking into account the child's needs and risks relative to probation supervision requirements to reasonably ensure the public safety. Probation programs for children shall be supervised by the department or by any other person or agency specifically authorized by the court. These programs must include, but are not limited to, structured or restricted activities as described in this subparagraph, and shall be designed to encourage the child toward acceptable and functional social behavior. If supervision or a program of community service is ordered by the court, the duration of such supervision or program must be consistent with any treatment and rehabilitation needs identified for the child and may not exceed the term for which sentence could be imposed if the child were committed for the offense, except that the duration of such supervision or program for an offense that is a misdemeanor of the second degree, or is equivalent to a misdemeanor of the second degree, may be for a period not to exceed 6 months. When restitution is ordered by the court, the amount of restitution may not exceed an amount the child and the parent or guardian could reasonably be expected to pay or make. A child who participates in any work program under this part is considered an employee of the state for purposes of liability, unless otherwise provided by law.

b.  The court may conduct judicial review hearings for a child placed on probation for the purpose of fostering accountability to the judge and compliance with other requirements, such as restitution and community service. The court may allow early termination of probation for a child who has substantially complied with the terms and conditions of probation.

c.  If the conditions of the probation program or the postcommitment probation program are violated, the department or the state attorney may bring the child before the court on a petition alleging a violation of the program. Any child who violates the conditions of probation or postcommitment probation must be brought before the court if sanctions are sought. A child taken into custody under s. 985.207 for violating the conditions of probation or postcommitment probation shall be held in a consequence unit if such a unit is available. The child shall be afforded a hearing within 24 hours after being taken into custody to determine the existence of probable cause that the child violated the conditions of probation or postcommitment probation. A consequence unit is a secure facility specifically designated by the department for children who are taken into custody under s. 985.207 for violating probation or postcommitment probation, or who have been found by the court to have violated the conditions of probation or postcommitment probation. If the violation involves a new charge of delinquency, the child may be detained under s. 985.215 in a facility other than a consequence unit. If the child is not eligible for detention for the new charge of delinquency, the child may be held in the consequence unit pending a hearing and is subject to the time limitations specified in s. 985.215. If the child denies violating the conditions of probation or postcommitment probation, the court shall appoint counsel to represent the child at the child's request. Upon the child's admission, or if the court finds after a hearing that the child has violated the conditions of probation or postcommitment probation, the court shall enter an order revoking, modifying, or continuing probation or postcommitment probation. In each such case, the court shall enter a new disposition order and, in addition to the sanctions set forth in this paragraph, may impose any sanction the court could have imposed at the original disposition hearing. If the child is found to have violated the conditions of probation or postcommitment probation, the court may:

(I)  Place the child in a consequence unit in that judicial circuit, if available, for up to 5 days for a first violation, and up to 15 days for a second or subsequent violation.

(II)  Place the child on home detention with electronic monitoring. However, this sanction may be used only if a residential consequence unit is not available.

(III)  Modify or continue the child's probation program or postcommitment probation program.

(IV)  Revoke probation or postcommitment probation and commit the child to the department.

d.  Notwithstanding s. 743.07 and paragraph (d), and except as provided in s. 985.31, the term of any order placing a child in a probation program must be until the child's 19th birthday unless he or she is released by the court, on the motion of an interested party or on its own motion.

2.  Commit the child to a licensed child-caring agency willing to receive the child, but the court may not commit the child to a jail or to a facility used primarily as a detention center or facility or shelter.

3.  Commit the child to the Department of Juvenile Justice at a residential commitment level defined in s. 985.03. Such commitment must be for the purpose of exercising active control over the child, including, but not limited to, custody, care, training, urine monitoring, and treatment of the child and release of the child into the community in a postcommitment nonresidential conditional release program. If the child is eligible to attend public school following residential commitment and the court finds that the victim or a sibling of the victim in the case is or may be attending the same school as the child, the commitment order shall include a finding pursuant to the proceedings described in s. 985.23(1)(d). If the child is not successful in the conditional release program, the department may use the transfer procedure under s. 985.404. Notwithstanding s. 743.07 and paragraph (d), and except as provided in s. 985.31, the term of the commitment must be until the child is discharged by the department or until he or she reaches the age of 21.

4.  Revoke or suspend the driver's license of the child.

5.  Require the child and, if the court finds it appropriate, the child's parent or guardian together with the child, to render community service in a public service program.

6.  As part of the probation program to be implemented by the Department of Juvenile Justice, or, in the case of a committed child, as part of the community-based sanctions ordered by the court at the disposition hearing or before the child's release from commitment, order the child to make restitution in money, through a promissory note cosigned by the child's parent or guardian, or in kind for any damage or loss caused by the child's offense in a reasonable amount or manner to be determined by the court. The clerk of the circuit court shall be the receiving and dispensing agent. In such case, the court shall order the child or the child's parent or guardian to pay to the office of the clerk of the circuit court an amount not to exceed the actual cost incurred by the clerk as a result of receiving and dispensing restitution payments. The clerk shall notify the court if restitution is not made, and the court shall take any further action that is necessary against the child or the child's parent or guardian. A finding by the court, after a hearing, that the parent or guardian has made diligent and good faith efforts to prevent the child from engaging in delinquent acts absolves the parent or guardian of liability for restitution under this subparagraph.

7.  Order the child and, if the court finds it appropriate, the child's parent or guardian together with the child, to participate in a community work project, either as an alternative to monetary restitution or as part of the rehabilitative or probation program.

8.  Commit the child to the Department of Juvenile Justice for placement in a program or facility for serious or habitual juvenile offenders in accordance with s. 985.31. Any commitment of a child to a program or facility for serious or habitual juvenile offenders must be for an indeterminate period of time, but the time may not exceed the maximum term of imprisonment that an adult may serve for the same offense. The court may retain jurisdiction over such child until the child reaches the age of 21, specifically for the purpose of the child completing the program.

9.  In addition to the sanctions imposed on the child, order the parent or guardian of the child to perform community service if the court finds that the parent or guardian did not make a diligent and good faith effort to prevent the child from engaging in delinquent acts. The court may also order the parent or guardian to make restitution in money or in kind for any damage or loss caused by the child's offense. The court shall determine a reasonable amount or manner of restitution, and payment shall be made to the clerk of the circuit court as provided in subparagraph 6.

10.  Subject to specific appropriation, commit the juvenile sexual offender to the Department of Juvenile Justice for placement in a program or facility for juvenile sexual offenders in accordance with s. 985.308. Any commitment of a juvenile sexual offender to a program or facility for juvenile sexual offenders must be for an indeterminate period of time, but the time may not exceed the maximum term of imprisonment that an adult may serve for the same offense. The court may retain jurisdiction over a juvenile sexual offender until the juvenile sexual offender reaches the age of 21, specifically for the purpose of completing the program.

(b)  When any child is found by the court to have committed a delinquent act and is placed on probation, regardless of adjudication, under the supervision of or in the temporary legal custody of the Department of Juvenile Justice, the court shall order the parents of such child to pay fees to the department as provided under s. 985.2311.

(c)  Any order made pursuant to paragraph (a) shall be in writing as prepared by the clerk of court and may thereafter be modified or set aside by the court.

(d)  Any commitment of a delinquent child to the Department of Juvenile Justice must be for an indeterminate period of time, which may include periods of temporary release, but the time may not exceed the maximum term of imprisonment that an adult may serve for the same offense. The duration of the child's placement in a residential commitment program of any level shall be based on objective performance-based treatment planning. The child's treatment plan progress and adjustment-related issues shall be reported to the court each month. The child's length of stay in a residential commitment program may be extended if the child fails to comply with or participate in treatment activities. The child's length of stay in such program shall not be extended for purposes of sanction or punishment. Any temporary release from such program must be approved by the court. Any child so committed may be discharged from institutional confinement or a program upon the direction of the department with the concurrence of the court. The child's treatment plan progress and adjustment-related issues must be communicated to the court at the time the department requests the court to consider releasing the child from the residential commitment program. Notwithstanding s. 743.07 and this subsection, and except as provided in ss. 985.201 and 985.31, a child may not be held under a commitment from a court pursuant to this section after becoming 21 years of age. The department shall give the court that committed the child to the department reasonable notice, in writing, of its desire to discharge the child from a commitment facility. The court that committed the child may thereafter accept or reject the request. If the court does not respond within 10 days after receipt of the notice, the request of the department shall be deemed granted. This section does not limit the department's authority to revoke a child's temporary release status and return the child to a commitment facility for any violation of the terms and conditions of the temporary release.

(e)  In carrying out the provisions of this part, the court may order the natural parents or legal custodian or guardian of a child who is found to have committed a delinquent act to participate in family counseling and other professional counseling activities deemed necessary for the rehabilitation of the child or to enhance their ability to provide the child with adequate support, guidance, and supervision. The court may also order that the parent, custodian, or guardian support the child and participate with the child in fulfilling a court-imposed sanction. In addition, the court may use its contempt powers to enforce a court-imposed sanction.

(f)  The court may at any time enter an order ending its jurisdiction over any child.

(g)  Whenever a child is required by the court to participate in any work program under this part or whenever a child volunteers to work in a specified state, county, municipal, or community service organization supervised work program or to work for the victim, either as an alternative to monetary restitution or as a part of the rehabilitative or probation program, the child is an employee of the state for the purposes of liability. In determining the child's average weekly wage unless otherwise determined by a specific funding program, all remuneration received from the employer is a gratuity, and the child is not entitled to any benefits otherwise payable under s. 440.15, regardless of whether the child may be receiving wages and remuneration from other employment with another employer and regardless of the child's future wage-earning capacity.

(h)  The court may, upon motion of the child or upon its own motion, within 60 days after imposition of a disposition of commitment, suspend the further execution of the disposition and place the child in a probation program upon such terms and conditions as the court may require. The department shall forward to the court all relevant material on the child's progress while in custody not later than 3 working days prior to the hearing on the motion to suspend the disposition.

(i)  The nonconsent of the child to commitment or treatment in a substance abuse treatment program in no way precludes the court from ordering such commitment or treatment.

(j)  If the offense committed by the child was grand theft of a motor vehicle, the court:

1.  Upon a first adjudication for a grand theft of a motor vehicle, may place the youth in a boot camp, unless the child is ineligible pursuant to s. 985.309, and shall order the youth to complete a minimum of 50 hours of community service.

2.  Upon a second adjudication for grand theft of a motor vehicle which is separate and unrelated to the previous adjudication, may place the youth in a boot camp, unless the child is ineligible pursuant to s. 985.309, and shall order the youth to complete a minimum of 100 hours of community service.

3.  Upon a third adjudication for grand theft of a motor vehicle which is separate and unrelated to the previous adjudications, shall place the youth in a boot camp or other treatment program, unless the child is ineligible pursuant to s. 985.309, and shall order the youth to complete a minimum of 250 hours of community service.

(2)  Following a delinquency adjudicatory hearing pursuant to s. 985.228 and a delinquency disposition hearing pursuant to s. 985.23 which results in a commitment determination, the court shall, on its own or upon request by the state or the department, determine whether the protection of the public requires that the child be placed in a program for serious or habitual juvenile offenders and whether the particular needs of the child would be best served by a program for serious or habitual juvenile offenders as provided in s. 985.31. The determination shall be made pursuant to ss. 985.03(48) and 985.23(3).

(3)  Following a delinquency adjudicatory hearing pursuant to s. 985.228, the court may on its own or upon request by the state or the department and subject to specific appropriation, determine whether a juvenile sexual offender placement is required for the protection of the public and what would be the best approach to address the treatment needs of the juvenile sexual offender. When the court determines that a juvenile has no history of a recent comprehensive assessment focused on sexually deviant behavior, the court may, subject to specific appropriation, order the department to conduct or arrange for an examination to determine whether the juvenile sexual offender is amenable to community-based treatment.

(a)  The report of the examination shall include, at a minimum, the following:

1.  The juvenile sexual offender's account of the incident and the official report of the investigation.

2.  The juvenile sexual offender's offense history.

3.  A multidisciplinary assessment of the sexually deviant behaviors, including an assessment by a certified psychologist, therapist, or psychiatrist.

4.  An assessment of the juvenile sexual offender's family, social, educational, and employment situation. The report shall set forth the sources of the evaluator's information.

(b)  The report shall assess the juvenile sexual offender's amenability to treatment and relative risk to the victim and the community.

(c)  The department shall provide a proposed plan to the court that shall include, at a minimum:

1.  The frequency and type of contact between the offender and therapist.

2.  The specific issues and behaviors to be addressed in the treatment and description of planned treatment methods.

3.  Monitoring plans, including any requirements regarding living conditions, school attendance and participation, lifestyle, and monitoring by family members, legal guardians, or others.

4.  Anticipated length of treatment.

5.  Recommended crime-related prohibitions and curfew.

6.  Reasonable restrictions on the contact between the juvenile sexual offender and either the victim or alleged victim.

(d)  After receipt of the report on the proposed plan of treatment, the court shall consider whether the community and the offender will benefit from use of juvenile sexual offender community-based treatment alternative disposition and consider the opinion of the victim or the victim's family as to whether the offender should receive a community-based treatment alternative disposition under this subsection.

(e)  If the court determines that this juvenile sexual offender community-based treatment alternative is appropriate, the court may place the offender on community supervision for up to 3 years. As a condition of community treatment and supervision, the court may order the offender to:

1.  Undergo available outpatient juvenile sexual offender treatment for up to 3 years. A program or provider may not be used for such treatment unless it has an appropriate program designed for sexual offender treatment. The department shall not change the treatment provider without first notifying the state attorney's office.

2.  Remain within described geographical boundaries and notify the court or the department counselor prior to any change in the offender's address, educational program, or employment.

3.  Comply with all requirements of the treatment plan.

(f)  The juvenile sexual offender treatment provider shall submit quarterly reports on the respondent's progress in treatment to the court and the parties to the proceedings. The juvenile sexual offender reports shall reference the treatment plan and include, at a minimum, the following:

1.  Dates of attendance.

2.  The juvenile sexual offender's compliance with the requirements of treatment.

3.  A description of the treatment activities.

4.  The sexual offender's relative progress in treatment.

5.  The offender's family support of the treatment objectives.

6.  Any other material specified by the court at the time of the disposition.

(g)  At the disposition hearing, the court may set case review hearings as the court considers appropriate.

(h)  If the juvenile sexual offender violates any condition of the disposition or the court finds that the juvenile sexual offender is failing to make satisfactory progress in treatment, the court may revoke the community-based treatment alternative and order commitment to the department pursuant to subsection (1).

(i)  If the court determines that the juvenile sexual offender is not amenable to community-based treatment, the court shall proceed with a juvenile sexual offender disposition hearing pursuant to subsection (1).

History.--s. 39, ch. 97-238; s. 3, ch. 97-281; s. 1, ch. 98-55; s. 14, ch. 98-207; s. 82, ch. 98-280; s. 132, ch. 99-3; s. 15, ch. 99-284; s. 12, ch. 2000-134; s. 31, ch. 2000-135; ss. 24, 25, ch. 2001-125; s. 121, ch. 2002-1; s. 141, ch. 2003-402; s. 4, ch. 2004-241.

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