823.08 Iceboxes, refrigerators, deep-freeze lockers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, or similar airtight units abandoned or discarded; attractive nuisance.
823.09 Violation of s. 823.07; penalty.
823.10 Place where controlled substances are illegally kept, sold, or used declared a public nuisance.
823.11 Abandoned and derelict vessels; removal; penalty.
823.12 Smoking in elevators unlawful; penalty.
823.13 Places where obscene materials are illegally kept, sold, or used declared a public nuisance; drive-in theaters, films visible from public streets or public places.
823.14 Florida Right to Farm Act.
823.145 Disposal by open burning of mulch plastic used in agricultural operations.
823.15 Dogs and cats released from animal shelters or animal control agencies; sterilization requirement.
823.16 Sport shooting ranges; definitions; exemption from liability; exemption from specified rules; exemption from nuisance actions; continued operation.
823.01 Nuisances; penalty.—All nuisances that tend to annoy the community, injure the health of the citizens in general, or corrupt the public morals are misdemeanors of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.083, except that a violation of s. 823.10 is a felony of the third degree.
History.—s. 47, Feb. 10, 1832; RS 2704; GS 3680; RGS 5624; CGL 7817; s. 932, ch. 71-136; s. 32, ch. 73-334; s. 66, ch. 74-383; s. 1, ch. 75-24; s. 41, ch. 75-298; s. 18, ch. 83-214; s. 3, ch. 2001-57.
823.02 Building bonfires.—Whoever is concerned in causing or making a bonfire within 10 rods of any house or building shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
History.—s. 12, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2705; GS 3681; RGS 5625; CGL 7818; s. 933, ch. 71-136; s. 66, ch. 74-383; s. 1, ch. 75-24; s. 41, ch. 75-298.
823.04 Animals suffering from disease or pests.—It is unlawful for any person to bring into this state or to offer for sale herein any horses, mules, cattle, hogs, or other domestic animals, knowing at the time of such introduction or offering for sale of any such animals that they are suffering from contagious or infectious disease or any pests declared by rule of the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services to be a public nuisance and to be dangerous, transmissible, or a threat to the agricultural interest of the state. Any person convicted of such offense is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.
History.—s. 1, ch. 4351, 1895; GS 3692; RGS 5637; CGL 7830; s. 935, ch. 71-136; s. 66, ch. 74-383; s. 1, ch. 75-24; s. 41, ch. 75-298; s. 4, ch. 84-72.
823.041 Disposal of bodies of dead animals; penalty.—
(1) Any owner, custodian, or person in charge of domestic animals, upon the death of such animals due to disease, shall dispose of the carcasses of such animals by burning or burying at least 2 feet below the surface of the ground; provided, however, nothing in this section shall prohibit the disposal of such animal carcasses to rendering companies licensed to do business in this state.
(2) It is unlawful to dispose of the carcass of any domestic animal by dumping such carcass on any public road or right-of-way, or in any place where such carcass can be devoured by beast or bird.
(3) Any person violating any of the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
(4) For the purposes of this act, the words “domestic animal” shall include any equine or bovine animal, goat, sheep, swine, dog, cat, poultry, or other domesticated beast or bird.
History.—ss. 1, 2, 3, 4, ch. 61-359; s. 936, ch. 71-136; s. 66, ch. 74-383; s. 1, ch. 75-24; s. 41, ch. 75-298.
823.05 Places and groups engaged in criminal gang-related activity declared a nuisance; may be abated and enjoined.—
(1) Whoever shall erect, establish, continue, or maintain, own or lease any building, booth, tent or place which tends to annoy the community or injure the health of the community, or become manifestly injurious to the morals or manners of the people as described in s. 823.01, or any house or place of prostitution, assignation, lewdness or place or building where games of chance are engaged in violation of law or any place where any law of the state is violated, shall be deemed guilty of maintaining a nuisance, and the building, erection, place, tent or booth and the furniture, fixtures, and contents are declared a nuisance. All such places or persons shall be abated or enjoined as provided in ss. 60.05 and 60.06.
(2)(a) As used in this subsection, the terms “criminal gang,” “criminal gang member,” “criminal gang associate,” and “criminal gang-related activity” have the same meanings as provided in s. 874.03.
(b) A criminal gang, criminal gang member, or criminal gang associate who engages in the commission of criminal gang-related activity is a public nuisance. Any and all such persons shall be abated or enjoined as provided in ss. 60.05 and 60.06.
(c) The use of a location on two or more occasions by a criminal gang, criminal gang members, or criminal gang associates for the purpose of engaging in criminal gang-related activity is a public nuisance. Such use of a location as a public nuisance shall be abated or enjoined as provided in ss. 60.05 and 60.06.
(d) Nothing in this subsection shall prevent a local governing body from adopting and enforcing laws consistent with this chapter relating to criminal gangs and gang violence. Where local laws duplicate or supplement this chapter, this chapter shall be construed as providing alternative remedies and not as preempting the field.
(e) The state, through the Department of Legal Affairs or any state attorney, or any of the state’s agencies, instrumentalities, subdivisions, or municipalities having jurisdiction over conduct in violation of a provision of this chapter may institute civil proceedings under this subsection. In any action brought under this subsection, the circuit court shall proceed as soon as practicable to the hearing and determination. Pending final determination, the circuit court may at any time enter such injunctions, prohibitions, or restraining orders, or take such actions, including the acceptance of satisfactory performance bonds, as the court may deem proper.
History.—s. 1, ch. 7367, 1917; RGS 5639; CGL 7832; s. 24, ch. 57-1; s. 66, ch. 74-383; s. 1, ch. 75-24; s. 41, ch. 75-298; s. 4, ch. 2008-238.
823.06 Doors of public buildings to open outward.—All buildings erected in this state for theatrical, operatic, or other public entertainments of whatsoever kind shall be so constructed that the shutters to all entrances to said building shall open outwardly and be so arranged as to readily allow any person inside said building to escape therefrom in case of fire or other accident. Any owner, manager, lessee, or other person having charge of any public building for the use expressed herein who fails to comply with the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.
History.—ss. 1, 3, ch. 4053, 1891; GS 3694; RGS 5640; CGL 7834; s. 937, ch. 71-136; s. 66, ch. 74-383; s. 1, ch. 75-24; s. 41, ch. 75-298.
(1) The purpose of ss. 823.07-823.09 is to prevent deaths due to suffocation of children locked in abandoned or discarded iceboxes, refrigerators, deep-freeze lockers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, or similar airtight units from which the doors have not been removed.
(2) It is unlawful for any person knowingly to abandon or discard or to permit to be abandoned or discarded on premises under his or her control any icebox, refrigerator, deep-freeze locker, clothes washer, clothes dryer, or similar airtight unit having an interior storage capacity of 11/2 cubic feet or more from which the door has not been removed.
(3) The provisions of this section shall not apply to an icebox, refrigerator, deep-freeze locker, clothes washer, clothes dryer, or similar airtight unit which is crated or is securely locked from the outside or is in the normal use on the premises of a home, or rental unit, or is held for sale or use in a place of business; provided, however, that “place of business” as used herein shall not be deemed to include a junkyard or other similar establishment dealing in secondhand merchandise for sale on open unprotected premises.
(4) It shall be unlawful for any junkyard dealer or secondhand furniture dealer with unenclosed premises used for display of secondhand iceboxes, refrigerators, deep-freeze lockers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, or similar airtight units to fail to remove the doors on such secondhand units having an interior storage capacity of 11/2 cubic feet or more from which the door has not been removed. This section will not apply to any dealer who has fenced and locked his or her premises.
History.—ss. 1, 2, ch. 29707, 1955; s. 1, ch. 67-135; s. 1, ch. 71-116; s. 66, ch. 74-383; s. 1, ch. 75-24; s. 41, ch. 75-298; s. 1278, ch. 97-102.
823.08 Iceboxes, refrigerators, deep-freeze lockers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, or similar airtight units abandoned or discarded; attractive nuisance.—Abandoned or discarded iceboxes, refrigerators, deep-freeze lockers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, or similar airtight units from which the doors have not been removed are declared to be an attractive nuisance to children and a menace to their health and safety when accessible to them whether or not such children are trespassers.
History.—s. 3, ch. 29707, 1955; s. 1, ch. 67-135; s. 2, ch. 71-116; s. 66, ch. 74-383; s. 1, ch. 75-24; s. 41, ch. 75-298.
823.09 Violation of s. 823.07; penalty.—Any person violating any provision of s. 823.07, is guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083; provided, however, that in the event death of a minor child or permanent physical or mental injury to a minor child results from willful and wanton misconduct amounting to culpable negligence on the part of the person committing such violation, then such person shall be guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.
History.—s. 4, ch. 29707, 1955; s. 1, ch. 67-135; s. 938, ch. 71-136; s. 66, ch. 74-383; s. 1, ch. 75-24; s. 41, ch. 75-298.
823.10 Place where controlled substances are illegally kept, sold, or used declared a public nuisance.—
(1) Any store, shop, warehouse, dwelling house, building, structure, vehicle, ship, boat, vessel, or aircraft, or any place whatever, which is visited by persons for the purpose of unlawfully using any substance controlled under chapter 893 or any drugs as described in chapter 499, or which is used for the illegal keeping, selling, or delivering of the same, shall be deemed a public nuisance. No person shall keep or maintain such public nuisance or aid and abet another in keeping or maintaining such public nuisance. Any person who willfully keeps or maintains a public nuisance or willfully aids or abets another in keeping or maintaining a public nuisance, and such public nuisance is a warehouse, structure, or building, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.
(2) Any proceeding brought under this section shall be governed by chapter 60.
History.—s. 1, ch. 69-364; s. 29, ch. 73-331; s. 66, ch. 74-383; s. 1, ch. 75-24; s. 41, ch. 75-298; s. 167, ch. 83-216; s. 2, ch. 96-237; s. 2, ch. 2001-57.
823.11 Abandoned and derelict vessels; removal; penalty.—
(1) “Derelict vessel” means any vessel, as defined in s. 327.02, that is left, stored, or abandoned:
(a) In a wrecked, junked, or substantially dismantled condition upon any public waters of this state.
(b) At any port in this state without the consent of the agency having jurisdiction thereof.
(c) Docked or grounded at or beached upon the property of another without the consent of the owner of the property.
(2) It is unlawful for any person, firm, or corporation to store, leave, or abandon any derelict vessel as defined in this section in this state.
(3)(a) The Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and its officers and all law enforcement officers as specified in s. 327.70 are authorized and empowered to remove or cause to be removed any abandoned or derelict vessel from public waters in any instance when the same obstructs or threatens to obstruct navigation or in any way constitutes a danger to the environment. Removal of vessels pursuant to this section may be funded by grants provided in ss. 206.606 and 376.15. The Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission is directed to implement a plan for the procurement of any available federal disaster funds and to use such funds for the removal of derelict vessels. All costs incurred by the commission or other law enforcement agency in the removal of any abandoned or derelict vessel as set out above shall be recoverable against the owner thereof. The Department of Legal Affairs shall represent the commission in such actions. As provided in s. 705.103(4), any person who neglects or refuses to pay such amount is not entitled to be issued a certificate of registration for such vessel or for any other vessel or motor vehicle until the costs have been paid.
(b) When a derelict vessel is docked or grounded at or beached upon private property without the consent of the owner of the property, the owner of the property may remove the vessel at the vessel owner’s expense 60 days after compliance with the notice requirements specified in s. 328.17(5). The private property owner may not hinder reasonable efforts by the vessel owner or agent to remove the vessel. Any notice given pursuant to this paragraph shall be presumed delivered when it is deposited with the United States Postal Service, certified, and properly addressed with prepaid postage.
(4) Any person, firm, or corporation violating this act commits a misdemeanor of the first degree and shall be punished as provided by law. Conviction under this section shall not bar the assessment and collection of the civil penalty provided in s. 376.16 for violation of s. 376.15. The court having jurisdiction over the criminal offense, notwithstanding any jurisdictional limitations on the amount in controversy, may order the imposition of such civil penalty in addition to any sentence imposed for the first criminal offense.
History.—ss. 1, 2, 3, ch. 73-207; s. 17, ch. 89-268; s. 473, ch. 94-356; s. 258, ch. 99-245; s. 11, ch. 2006-309.
823.12 Smoking in elevators unlawful; penalty.—It is unlawful for any person to possess any ignited tobacco product or other ignited substance while present in an elevator. Any person who violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
History.—s. 1, ch. 74-115; s. 15, ch. 83-145; s. 198, ch. 91-224.
823.13 Places where obscene materials are illegally kept, sold, or used declared a public nuisance; drive-in theaters, films visible from public streets or public places.—
(1) Any store, shop, warehouse, building, vehicle, ship, boat, vessel, aircraft, or any place whatever, which is visited by persons for the purpose of unlawfully purchasing or viewing any obscene material or performance as described in chapter 847, or which is used for the illegal keeping, selling, or delivering of the same, shall be deemed a public nuisance. No person shall keep or maintain such public nuisance or aid and abet another in keeping or maintaining such public nuisance.
(2) It shall be unlawful and is hereby declared a public nuisance for any ticket seller, ticket taker, usher, motion picture projection machine operator, manager, owner, or any other person connected with or employed by any drive-in theater in the state to knowingly exhibit, or aid or assist in exhibiting, any motion picture, slide, or other exhibit which depicts nudity which is harmful to minors as described in s. 847.013, if such motion picture, slide, or other exhibit is visible from any public street or public place, other than that place intended for the showing of such motion pictures, slides, or other exhibits.
History.—s. 1, ch. 78-172.
823.14 Florida Right to Farm Act.—
(1) SHORT TITLE.—This section shall be known and may be cited as the “Florida Right to Farm Act.”
(2) LEGISLATIVE FINDINGS AND PURPOSE.—The Legislature finds that agricultural production is a major contributor to the economy of the state; that agricultural lands constitute unique and irreplaceable resources of statewide importance; that the continuation of agricultural activities preserves the landscape and environmental resources of the state, contributes to the increase of tourism, and furthers the economic self-sufficiency of the people of the state; and that the encouragement, development, improvement, and preservation of agriculture will result in a general benefit to the health and welfare of the people of the state. The Legislature further finds that agricultural activities conducted on farm land in urbanizing areas are potentially subject to lawsuits based on the theory of nuisance and that these suits encourage and even force the premature removal of the farm land from agricultural use. It is the purpose of this act to protect reasonable agricultural activities conducted on farm land from nuisance suits.
(3) DEFINITIONS.—As used in this section:
(a) “Farm” means the land, buildings, support facilities, machinery, and other appurtenances used in the production of farm or aquaculture products.
(b) “Farm operation” means all conditions or activities by the owner, lessee, agent, independent contractor, and supplier which occur on a farm in connection with the production of farm products and includes, but is not limited to, the marketing of produce at roadside stands or farm markets; the operation of machinery and irrigation pumps; the generation of noise, odors, dust, and fumes; ground or aerial seeding and spraying; the application of chemical fertilizers, conditioners, insecticides, pesticides, and herbicides; and the employment and use of labor.
(c) “Farm product” means any plant, as defined in s. 581.011, or animal useful to humans and includes, but is not limited to, any product derived therefrom.
(d) “Established date of operation” means the date the farm operation commenced. If the farm operation is subsequently expanded within the original boundaries of the farm land, the established date of operation of the expansion shall also be considered as the date the original farm operation commenced. If the land boundaries of the farm are subsequently expanded, the established date of operation for each expansion is deemed to be a separate and independent established date of operation. The expanded operation shall not divest the farm operation of a previous established date of operation.
(4) FARM OPERATION NOT TO BE OR BECOME A NUISANCE.—
(a) No farm operation which has been in operation for 1 year or more since its established date of operation and which was not a nuisance at the time of its established date of operation shall be a public or private nuisance if the farm operation conforms to generally accepted agricultural and management practices, except that the following conditions shall constitute evidence of a nuisance:
1. The presence of untreated or improperly treated human waste, garbage, offal, dead animals, dangerous waste materials, or gases which are harmful to human or animal life.
2. The presence of improperly built or improperly maintained septic tanks, water closets, or privies.
3. The keeping of diseased animals which are dangerous to human health, unless such animals are kept in accordance with a current state or federal disease control program.
4. The presence of unsanitary places where animals are slaughtered, which may give rise to diseases which are harmful to human or animal life.
(b) No farm operation shall become a public or private nuisance as a result of a change in ownership, a change in the type of farm product being produced, a change in conditions in or around the locality of the farm, or a change brought about to comply with Best Management Practices adopted by local, state, or federal agencies if such farm has been in operation for 1 year or more since its established date of operation and if it was not a nuisance at the time of its established date of operation.
(5) WHEN EXPANSION OF OPERATION NOT PERMITTED.—This act shall not be construed to permit an existing farm operation to change to a more excessive farm operation with regard to noise, odor, dust, or fumes where the existing farm operation is adjacent to an established homestead or business on March 15, 1982.
(6) LIMITATION ON DUPLICATION OF GOVERNMENT REGULATION.—It is the intent of the Legislature to eliminate duplication of regulatory authority over farm operations as expressed in this subsection. Except as otherwise provided for in this section and s. 487.051(2), and notwithstanding any other provision of law, a local government may not adopt any ordinance, regulation, rule, or policy to prohibit, restrict, regulate, or otherwise limit an activity of a bona fide farm operation on land classified as agricultural land pursuant to s. 193.461, where such activity is regulated through implemented best management practices or interim measures developed by the Department of Environmental Protection, the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, or water management districts and adopted under chapter 120 as part of a statewide or regional program. When an activity of a farm operation takes place within a wellfield protection area as defined in any wellfield protection ordinance adopted by a local government, and the adopted best management practice or interim measure does not specifically address wellfield protection, a local government may regulate that activity pursuant to such ordinance. This subsection does not limit the powers and duties provided for in s. 373.4592 or limit the powers and duties of any local government to address an emergency as provided for in chapter 252.
History.—s. 1, ch. 79-61; ss. 1, 2, ch. 82-24; s. 9, ch. 87-367; s. 75, ch. 93-206; s. 1279, ch. 97-102; s. 25, ch. 99-391; s. 39, ch. 2000-308.
823.145 Disposal by open burning of mulch plastic used in agricultural operations.—Polyethylene mulch plastic used in agricultural operations may be disposed of by open burning provided that no public nuisance or any condition affecting the public health is created thereby and that state or federal national ambient air quality standards are not violated.
History.—s. 2, ch. 87-337.
823.15 Dogs and cats released from animal shelters or animal control agencies; sterilization requirement.—
(1) The Legislature has determined that uncontrolled breeding of dogs and cats in the state results in the production of many more puppies and kittens than are needed to replace pet animals which have died or become lost or to provide pet animals for new owners. This leads to many dogs, cats, puppies, and kittens being unwanted, becoming strays and suffering privation and death, being impounded and destroyed at great expense to the community, and constituting a public nuisance and public health hazard. It is therefore declared to be the public policy of the state that every feasible means of reducing the production of unneeded and unwanted puppies and kittens be encouraged.
(2) In furtherance of this policy, provision shall be made for the sterilization of all dogs and cats sold or released for adoption from any public or private animal shelter or animal control agency operated by a humane society or by a county, city, or other incorporated political subdivision, by either:
(a) Providing sterilization by a licensed veterinarian before relinquishing custody of the animal; or
(b) Entering into a written agreement with the adopter or purchaser guaranteeing that sterilization will be performed within 30 days or prior to sexual maturity. The shelter or animal control agency shall require a sufficient deposit from the adopter or purchaser, which deposit shall be refundable upon presentation to the shelter or animal control agency of written evidence by the veterinarian performing the sterilization that the animal has been sterilized. The deposit or donation may be based upon recommended guidelines established by the Florida Federation of Humane Societies. Failure by either party to comply with the provisions of this paragraph shall be a noncriminal violation as defined in s. 775.08(3), punishable by a fine, forfeiture, or other civil penalty, and, in addition thereto, the deposit or donation shall be forfeited to the shelter or animal control agency. Any legal fees or court costs used for the enforcement of this paragraph are the responsibility of the adopter. Upon the request of a licensed veterinarian, and for a valid reason, the shelter or animal control agency shall extend the time limit within which the animal must be sterilized.
(3) All costs of sterilization pursuant to this section shall be paid by the prospective adopter unless otherwise provided for by ordinance of the local governing body, with respect to animal control agencies or shelters operated or subsidized by a unit of local government, or provided for by the humane society governing body, with respect to an animal control agency or shelter operated solely by the humane society and not subsidized by public funds.
History.—ss. 1, 2, 3, ch. 80-87.
823.16 Sport shooting ranges; definitions; exemption from liability; exemption from specified rules; exemption from nuisance actions; continued operation.—
(1) Definitions.—As used in this act, the following terms shall have the following meanings:
(a) “Unit of local government” means a unit of local government created or established by law, including, but not limited to, a city, consolidated government, county, metropolitan government, municipality, town, or village.
(b) “Person” means an individual, corporation, proprietorship, partnership, association, club, two or more persons having a joint or common interest, or any other legal entity.
(c) “Sport shooting range” or “range” means an area designed and operated for the use of rifles, shotguns, pistols, silhouettes, skeet, trap, black powder, or any other similar type of sport shooting.
(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a person who operates or uses a sport shooting range in this state shall not be subject to civil liability or criminal prosecution in any matter relating to noise or noise pollution which results from the operation or use of a sport shooting range, if the range is in compliance with any noise control laws or ordinances adopted by a unit of local government applicable to the range and its operation at the time of construction or initial operation of the range.
(3) A person who operates or uses a sport shooting range is not subject to an action for nuisance, and a court of this state shall not enjoin the use or operation of a sport shooting range on the basis of noise or noise pollution, if the range is in compliance with any noise control laws or ordinances that applied to the range and its operation at the time of construction or initial operation of the range.
(4) Rules adopted by any state department or agency for limiting levels of noise in terms of decibel levels which may occur in the outdoor atmosphere shall not apply to a sport shooting range exempted from liability under this act.
(5) A person who acquires title to or owns real property adversely affected by the use of property with a permanently located and improved sport shooting range shall not maintain a nuisance action against the person who owns the range to restrain, enjoin, or impede the use of the range where there has not been a substantial change in the nature of the use of the range. This section does not prohibit actions for negligence or recklessness in the operation of a sport shooting range or by a person using the range.
(6) A sport shooting range that is not in violation of existing law at the time of the enactment of an ordinance applicable to the sport shooting range shall be permitted to continue in operation even if the operation of the sport shooting range does not conform to the new ordinance or an amendment to an existing ordinance, provided the range was not in violation of any law when the range was constructed and provided that the range continues to conform to current National Rifle Association gun safety and shooting range standards.
(7) Except as otherwise provided in this act, this act shall not prohibit a local government from regulating the location and construction of a sport shooting range after the effective date of this act.