Section 409.908, Florida Statutes 2004
409.908 Reimbursement of Medicaid providers.--Subject to specific appropriations, the agency shall reimburse Medicaid providers, in accordance with state and federal law, according to methodologies set forth in the rules of the agency and in policy manuals and handbooks incorporated by reference therein. These methodologies may include fee schedules, reimbursement methods based on cost reporting, negotiated fees, competitive bidding pursuant to s. 287.057, and other mechanisms the agency considers efficient and effective for purchasing services or goods on behalf of recipients. If a provider is reimbursed based on cost reporting and submits a cost report late and that cost report would have been used to set a lower reimbursement rate for a rate semester, then the provider's rate for that semester shall be retroactively calculated using the new cost report, and full payment at the recalculated rate shall be effected retroactively. Medicare-granted extensions for filing cost reports, if applicable, shall also apply to Medicaid cost reports. Payment for Medicaid compensable services made on behalf of Medicaid eligible persons is subject to the availability of moneys and any limitations or directions provided for in the General Appropriations Act or chapter 216. Further, nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent or limit the agency from adjusting fees, reimbursement rates, lengths of stay, number of visits, or number of services, or making any other adjustments necessary to comply with the availability of moneys and any limitations or directions provided for in the General Appropriations Act, provided the adjustment is consistent with legislative intent.
(1) Reimbursement to hospitals licensed under part I of chapter 395 must be made prospectively or on the basis of negotiation.
(a) Reimbursement for inpatient care is limited as provided for in s. 409.905(5), except for:
1. The raising of rate reimbursement caps, excluding rural hospitals.
2. Recognition of the costs of graduate medical education.
3. Other methodologies recognized in the General Appropriations Act.
4. Hospital inpatient rates shall be reduced by 6 percent effective July 1, 2001, and restored effective April 1, 2002.
During the years funds are transferred from the Department of Health, any reimbursement supported by such funds shall be subject to certification by the Department of Health that the hospital has complied with s. 381.0403. The agency is authorized to receive funds from state entities, including, but not limited to, the Department of Health, local governments, and other local political subdivisions, for the purpose of making special exception payments, including federal matching funds, through the Medicaid inpatient reimbursement methodologies. Funds received from state entities or local governments for this purpose shall be separately accounted for and shall not be commingled with other state or local funds in any manner. The agency may certify all local governmental funds used as state match under Title XIX of the Social Security Act, to the extent that the identified local health care provider that is otherwise entitled to and is contracted to receive such local funds is the benefactor under the state's Medicaid program as determined under the General Appropriations Act and pursuant to an agreement between the Agency for Health Care Administration and the local governmental entity. The local governmental entity shall use a certification form prescribed by the agency. At a minimum, the certification form shall identify the amount being certified and describe the relationship between the certifying local governmental entity and the local health care provider. The agency shall prepare an annual statement of impact which documents the specific activities undertaken during the previous fiscal year pursuant to this paragraph, to be submitted to the Legislature no later than January 1, annually.
(b) Reimbursement for hospital outpatient care is limited to $1,500 per state fiscal year per recipient, except for:
1. Such care provided to a Medicaid recipient under age 21, in which case the only limitation is medical necessity.
2. Renal dialysis services.
3. Other exceptions made by the agency.
The agency is authorized to receive funds from state entities, including, but not limited to, the Department of Health, the 1Board of Regents, local governments, and other local political subdivisions, for the purpose of making payments, including federal matching funds, through the Medicaid outpatient reimbursement methodologies. Funds received from state entities and local governments for this purpose shall be separately accounted for and shall not be commingled with other state or local funds in any manner.
(c) Hospitals that provide services to a disproportionate share of low-income Medicaid recipients, or that participate in the regional perinatal intensive care center program under chapter 383, or that participate in the statutory teaching hospital disproportionate share program may receive additional reimbursement. The total amount of payment for disproportionate share hospitals shall be fixed by the General Appropriations Act. The computation of these payments must be made in compliance with all federal regulations and the methodologies described in ss. 409.911, 409.9112, and 409.9113.
(d) The agency is authorized to limit inflationary increases for outpatient hospital services as directed by the General Appropriations Act.
(2)(a)1. Reimbursement to nursing homes licensed under part II of chapter 400 and state-owned-and-operated intermediate care facilities for the developmentally disabled licensed under chapter 393 must be made prospectively.
2. Unless otherwise limited or directed in the General Appropriations Act, reimbursement to hospitals licensed under part I of chapter 395 for the provision of swing-bed nursing home services must be made on the basis of the average statewide nursing home payment, and reimbursement to a hospital licensed under part I of chapter 395 for the provision of skilled nursing services must be made on the basis of the average nursing home payment for those services in the county in which the hospital is located. When a hospital is located in a county that does not have any community nursing homes, reimbursement must be determined by averaging the nursing home payments, in counties that surround the county in which the hospital is located. Reimbursement to hospitals, including Medicaid payment of Medicare copayments, for skilled nursing services shall be limited to 30 days, unless a prior authorization has been obtained from the agency. Medicaid reimbursement may be extended by the agency beyond 30 days, and approval must be based upon verification by the patient's physician that the patient requires short-term rehabilitative and recuperative services only, in which case an extension of no more than 15 days may be approved. Reimbursement to a hospital licensed under part I of chapter 395 for the temporary provision of skilled nursing services to nursing home residents who have been displaced as the result of a natural disaster or other emergency may not exceed the average county nursing home payment for those services in the county in which the hospital is located and is limited to the period of time which the agency considers necessary for continued placement of the nursing home residents in the hospital.
(b) Subject to any limitations or directions provided for in the General Appropriations Act, the agency shall establish and implement a Florida Title XIX Long-Term Care Reimbursement Plan (Medicaid) for nursing home care in order to provide care and services in conformance with the applicable state and federal laws, rules, regulations, and quality and safety standards and to ensure that individuals eligible for medical assistance have reasonable geographic access to such care.
1. Changes of ownership or of licensed operator do not qualify for increases in reimbursement rates associated with the change of ownership or of licensed operator. The agency shall amend the Title XIX Long Term Care Reimbursement Plan to provide that the initial nursing home reimbursement rates, for the operating, patient care, and MAR components, associated with related and unrelated party changes of ownership or licensed operator filed on or after September 1, 2001, are equivalent to the previous owner's reimbursement rate.
2. The agency shall amend the long-term care reimbursement plan and cost reporting system to create direct care and indirect care subcomponents of the patient care component of the per diem rate. These two subcomponents together shall equal the patient care component of the per diem rate. Separate cost-based ceilings shall be calculated for each patient care subcomponent. The direct care subcomponent of the per diem rate shall be limited by the cost-based class ceiling, and the indirect care subcomponent shall be limited by the lower of the cost-based class ceiling, by the target rate class ceiling, or by the individual provider target. The agency shall adjust the patient care component effective January 1, 2002. The cost to adjust the direct care subcomponent shall be net of the total funds previously allocated for the case mix add-on. The agency shall make the required changes to the nursing home cost reporting forms to implement this requirement effective January 1, 2002.
3. The direct care subcomponent shall include salaries and benefits of direct care staff providing nursing services including registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and certified nursing assistants who deliver care directly to residents in the nursing home facility. This excludes nursing administration, MDS, and care plan coordinators, staff development, and staffing coordinator.
4. All other patient care costs shall be included in the indirect care cost subcomponent of the patient care per diem rate. There shall be no costs directly or indirectly allocated to the direct care subcomponent from a home office or management company.
5. On July 1 of each year, the agency shall report to the Legislature direct and indirect care costs, including average direct and indirect care costs per resident per facility and direct care and indirect care salaries and benefits per category of staff member per facility.
6. In order to offset the cost of general and professional liability insurance, the agency shall amend the plan to allow for interim rate adjustments to reflect increases in the cost of general or professional liability insurance for nursing homes. This provision shall be implemented to the extent existing appropriations are available.
It is the intent of the Legislature that the reimbursement plan achieve the goal of providing access to health care for nursing home residents who require large amounts of care while encouraging diversion services as an alternative to nursing home care for residents who can be served within the community. The agency shall base the establishment of any maximum rate of payment, whether overall or component, on the available moneys as provided for in the General Appropriations Act. The agency may base the maximum rate of payment on the results of scientifically valid analysis and conclusions derived from objective statistical data pertinent to the particular maximum rate of payment.
(3) Subject to any limitations or directions provided for in the General Appropriations Act, the following Medicaid services and goods may be reimbursed on a fee-for-service basis. For each allowable service or goods furnished in accordance with Medicaid rules, policy manuals, handbooks, and state and federal law, the payment shall be the amount billed by the provider, the provider's usual and customary charge, or the maximum allowable fee established by the agency, whichever amount is less, with the exception of those services or goods for which the agency makes payment using a methodology based on capitation rates, average costs, or negotiated fees.
(a) Advanced registered nurse practitioner services.
(b) Birth center services.
(c) Chiropractic services.
(d) Community mental health services.
(e) Dental services, including oral and maxillofacial surgery.
(f) Durable medical equipment.
(g) Hearing services.
(h) Occupational therapy for Medicaid recipients under age 21.
(i) Optometric services.
(j) Orthodontic services.
(k) Personal care for Medicaid recipients under age 21.
(l) Physical therapy for Medicaid recipients under age 21.
(m) Physician assistant services.
(n) Podiatric services.
(o) Portable X-ray services.
(p) Private-duty nursing for Medicaid recipients under age 21.
(q) Registered nurse first assistant services.
(r) Respiratory therapy for Medicaid recipients under age 21.
(s) Speech therapy for Medicaid recipients under age 21.
(t) Visual services.
(4) Subject to any limitations or directions provided for in the General Appropriations Act, alternative health plans, health maintenance organizations, and prepaid health plans shall be reimbursed a fixed, prepaid amount negotiated, or competitively bid pursuant to s. 287.057, by the agency and prospectively paid to the provider monthly for each Medicaid recipient enrolled. The amount may not exceed the average amount the agency determines it would have paid, based on claims experience, for recipients in the same or similar category of eligibility. The agency shall calculate capitation rates on a regional basis and, beginning September 1, 1995, shall include age-band differentials in such calculations.
(5) An ambulatory surgical center shall be reimbursed the lesser of the amount billed by the provider or the Medicare-established allowable amount for the facility.
(6) A provider of early and periodic screening, diagnosis, and treatment services to Medicaid recipients who are children under age 21 shall be reimbursed using an all-inclusive rate stipulated in a fee schedule established by the agency. A provider of the visual, dental, and hearing components of such services shall be reimbursed the lesser of the amount billed by the provider or the Medicaid maximum allowable fee established by the agency.
(7) A provider of family planning services shall be reimbursed the lesser of the amount billed by the provider or an all-inclusive amount per type of visit for physicians and advanced registered nurse practitioners, as established by the agency in a fee schedule.
(8) A provider of home-based or community-based services rendered pursuant to a federally approved waiver shall be reimbursed based on an established or negotiated rate for each service. These rates shall be established according to an analysis of the expenditure history and prospective budget developed by each contract provider participating in the waiver program, or under any other methodology adopted by the agency and approved by the Federal Government in accordance with the waiver. Effective July 1, 1996, privately owned and operated community-based residential facilities which meet agency requirements and which formerly received Medicaid reimbursement for the optional intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded service may participate in the developmental services waiver as part of a home-and-community-based continuum of care for Medicaid recipients who receive waiver services.
(9) A provider of home health care services or of medical supplies and appliances shall be reimbursed on the basis of competitive bidding or for the lesser of the amount billed by the provider or the agency's established maximum allowable amount, except that, in the case of the rental of durable medical equipment, the total rental payments may not exceed the purchase price of the equipment over its expected useful life or the agency's established maximum allowable amount, whichever amount is less.
(10) A hospice shall be reimbursed through a prospective system for each Medicaid hospice patient at Medicaid rates using the methodology established for hospice reimbursement pursuant to Title XVIII of the federal Social Security Act.
(11) A provider of independent laboratory services shall be reimbursed on the basis of competitive bidding or for the least of the amount billed by the provider, the provider's usual and customary charge, or the Medicaid maximum allowable fee established by the agency.
(12)(a) A physician shall be reimbursed the lesser of the amount billed by the provider or the Medicaid maximum allowable fee established by the agency.
(b) The agency shall adopt a fee schedule, subject to any limitations or directions provided for in the General Appropriations Act, based on a resource-based relative value scale for pricing Medicaid physician services. Under this fee schedule, physicians shall be paid a dollar amount for each service based on the average resources required to provide the service, including, but not limited to, estimates of average physician time and effort, practice expense, and the costs of professional liability insurance. The fee schedule shall provide increased reimbursement for preventive and primary care services and lowered reimbursement for specialty services by using at least two conversion factors, one for cognitive services and another for procedural services. The fee schedule shall not increase total Medicaid physician expenditures unless moneys are available, and shall be phased in over a 2-year period beginning on July 1, 1994. The Agency for Health Care Administration shall seek the advice of a 16-member advisory panel in formulating and adopting the fee schedule. The panel shall consist of Medicaid physicians licensed under chapters 458 and 459 and shall be composed of 50 percent primary care physicians and 50 percent specialty care physicians.
(c) Notwithstanding paragraph (b), reimbursement fees to physicians for providing total obstetrical services to Medicaid recipients, which include prenatal, delivery, and postpartum care, shall be at least $1,500 per delivery for a pregnant woman with low medical risk and at least $2,000 per delivery for a pregnant woman with high medical risk. However, reimbursement to physicians working in Regional Perinatal Intensive Care Centers designated pursuant to chapter 383, for services to certain pregnant Medicaid recipients with a high medical risk, may be made according to obstetrical care and neonatal care groupings and rates established by the agency. Nurse midwives licensed under part I of chapter 464 or midwives licensed under chapter 467 shall be reimbursed at no less than 80 percent of the low medical risk fee. The agency shall by rule determine, for the purpose of this paragraph, what constitutes a high or low medical risk pregnant woman and shall not pay more based solely on the fact that a caesarean section was performed, rather than a vaginal delivery. The agency shall by rule determine a prorated payment for obstetrical services in cases where only part of the total prenatal, delivery, or postpartum care was performed. The Department of Health shall adopt rules for appropriate insurance coverage for midwives licensed under chapter 467. Prior to the issuance and renewal of an active license, or reactivation of an inactive license for midwives licensed under chapter 467, such licensees shall submit proof of coverage with each application.
(13) Medicare premiums for persons eligible for both Medicare and Medicaid coverage shall be paid at the rates established by Title XVIII of the Social Security Act. For Medicare services rendered to Medicaid-eligible persons, Medicaid shall pay Medicare deductibles and coinsurance as follows:
(a) Medicaid shall make no payment toward deductibles and coinsurance for any service that is not covered by Medicaid.
(b) Medicaid's financial obligation for deductibles and coinsurance payments shall be based on Medicare allowable fees, not on a provider's billed charges.
(c) Medicaid will pay no portion of Medicare deductibles and coinsurance when payment that Medicare has made for the service equals or exceeds what Medicaid would have paid if it had been the sole payor. The combined payment of Medicare and Medicaid shall not exceed the amount Medicaid would have paid had it been the sole payor. The Legislature finds that there has been confusion regarding the reimbursement for services rendered to dually eligible Medicare beneficiaries. Accordingly, the Legislature clarifies that it has always been the intent of the Legislature before and after 1991 that, in reimbursing in accordance with fees established by Title XVIII for premiums, deductibles, and coinsurance for Medicare services rendered by physicians to Medicaid eligible persons, physicians be reimbursed at the lesser of the amount billed by the physician or the Medicaid maximum allowable fee established by the Agency for Health Care Administration, as is permitted by federal law. It has never been the intent of the Legislature with regard to such services rendered by physicians that Medicaid be required to provide any payment for deductibles, coinsurance, or copayments for Medicare cost sharing, or any expenses incurred relating thereto, in excess of the payment amount provided for under the State Medicaid plan for such service. This payment methodology is applicable even in those situations in which the payment for Medicare cost sharing for a qualified Medicare beneficiary with respect to an item or service is reduced or eliminated. This expression of the Legislature is in clarification of existing law and shall apply to payment for, and with respect to provider agreements with respect to, items or services furnished on or after the effective date of this act. This paragraph applies to payment by Medicaid for items and services furnished before the effective date of this act if such payment is the subject of a lawsuit that is based on the provisions of this section, and that is pending as of, or is
initiated after, the effective date of this act.
(d) Notwithstanding paragraphs (a)-(c):
1. Medicaid payments for Nursing Home Medicare part A coinsurance shall be the lesser of the Medicare coinsurance amount or the Medicaid nursing home per diem rate.
2. Medicaid shall pay all deductibles and coinsurance for Medicare-eligible recipients receiving freestanding end stage renal dialysis center services.
3. Medicaid payments for general hospital inpatient services shall be limited to the Medicare deductible per spell of illness. Medicaid shall make no payment toward coinsurance for Medicare general hospital inpatient services.
4. Medicaid shall pay all deductibles and coinsurance for Medicare emergency transportation services provided by ambulances licensed pursuant to chapter 401.
(14) A provider of prescribed drugs shall be reimbursed the least of the amount billed by the provider, the provider's usual and customary charge, or the Medicaid maximum allowable fee established by the agency, plus a dispensing fee. The Medicaid maximum allowable fee for ingredient cost will be based on the lower of: average wholesale price (AWP) minus 15.4 percent, wholesaler acquisition cost (WAC) plus 5.75 percent, the federal upper limit (FUL), the state maximum allowable cost (SMAC), or the usual and customary (UAC) charge billed by the provider. Medicaid providers are required to dispense generic drugs if available at lower cost and the agency has not determined that the branded product is more cost-effective, unless the prescriber has requested and received approval to require the branded product. The agency is directed to implement a variable dispensing fee for payments for prescribed medicines while ensuring continued access for Medicaid recipients. The variable dispensing fee may be based upon, but not limited to, either or both the volume of prescriptions dispensed by a specific pharmacy provider, the volume of prescriptions dispensed to an individual recipient, and dispensing of preferred-drug-list products. The agency may increase the pharmacy dispensing fee authorized by statute and in the annual General Appropriations Act by $0.50 for the dispensing of a Medicaid preferred-drug-list product and reduce the pharmacy dispensing fee by $0.50 for the dispensing of a Medicaid product that is not included on the preferred drug list. The agency may establish a supplemental pharmaceutical dispensing fee to be paid to providers returning unused unit-dose packaged medications to stock and crediting the Medicaid program for the ingredient cost of those medications if the ingredient costs to be credited exceed the value of the supplemental dispensing fee. The agency is authorized to limit reimbursement for prescribed medicine in order to comply with any limitations or directions provided for
in the General Appropriations Act, which may include implementing a prospective or concurrent utilization review program.
(15) A provider of primary care case management services rendered pursuant to a federally approved waiver shall be reimbursed by payment of a fixed, prepaid monthly sum for each Medicaid recipient enrolled with the provider.
(16) A provider of rural health clinic services and federally qualified health center services shall be reimbursed a rate per visit based on total reasonable costs of the clinic, as determined by the agency in accordance with federal regulations.
(17) A provider of targeted case management services shall be reimbursed pursuant to an established fee, except where the Federal Government requires a public provider be reimbursed on the basis of average actual costs.
(18) Unless otherwise provided for in the General Appropriations Act, a provider of transportation services shall be reimbursed the lesser of the amount billed by the provider or the Medicaid maximum allowable fee established by the agency, except when the agency has entered into a direct contract with the provider, or with a community transportation coordinator, for the provision of an all-inclusive service, or when services are provided pursuant to an agreement negotiated between the agency and the provider. The agency, as provided for in s. 427.0135, shall purchase transportation services through the community coordinated transportation system, if available, unless the agency determines a more cost-effective method for Medicaid clients. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to limit or preclude the agency from contracting for services using a prepaid capitation rate or from establishing maximum fee schedules, individualized reimbursement policies by provider type, negotiated fees, prior authorization, competitive bidding, increased use of mass transit, or any other mechanism that the agency considers efficient and effective for the purchase of services on behalf of Medicaid clients, including implementing a transportation eligibility process. The agency shall not be required to contract with any community transportation coordinator or transportation operator that has been determined by the agency, the Department of Legal Affairs Medicaid Fraud Control Unit, or any other state or federal agency to have engaged in any abusive or fraudulent billing activities. The agency is authorized to competitively procure transportation services or make other changes necessary to secure approval of federal waivers needed to permit federal financing of Medicaid transportation services at the service matching rate rather than the administrative matching rate.
(19) County health department services shall be reimbursed a rate per visit based on total reasonable costs of the clinic, as determined by the agency in accordance with federal regulations under the authority of 42 C.F.R. s. 431.615.
(20) A renal dialysis facility that provides dialysis services under s. 409.906(9) must be reimbursed the lesser of the amount billed by the provider, the provider's usual and customary charge, or the maximum allowable fee established by the agency, whichever amount is less.
(21) The agency shall reimburse school districts which certify the state match pursuant to ss. 409.9071 and 1011.70 for the federal portion of the school district's allowable costs to deliver the services, based on the reimbursement schedule. The school district shall determine the costs for delivering services as authorized in ss. 409.9071 and 1011.70 for which the state match will be certified. Reimbursement of school-based providers is contingent on such providers being enrolled as Medicaid providers and meeting the qualifications contained in 42 C.F.R. s. 440.110, unless otherwise waived by the federal Health Care Financing Administration. Speech therapy providers who are certified through the Department of Education pursuant to rule 6A-4.0176, Florida Administrative Code, are eligible for reimbursement for services that are provided on school premises. Any employee of the school district who has been fingerprinted and has received a criminal background check in accordance with Department of Education rules and guidelines shall be exempt from any agency requirements relating to criminal background checks.
(22) The agency shall request and implement Medicaid waivers from the federal Health Care Financing Administration to advance and treat a portion of the Medicaid nursing home per diem as capital for creating and operating a risk-retention group for self-insurance purposes, consistent with federal and state laws and rules.
History.--s. 37, ch. 91-282; s. 17, ch. 92-179; s. 1, ch. 92-311; s. 47, ch. 93-129; s. 28, ch. 93-211; s. 2, ch. 94-299; s. 4, ch. 94-317; s. 2, ch. 95-291; s. 3, ch. 95-336; s. 5, ch. 95-393; s. 6, ch. 96-417; s. 3, ch. 97-168; s. 65, ch. 97-237; s. 1, ch. 97-243; s. 11, ch. 97-260; ss. 14, 19, ch. 97-263; s. 4, ch. 97-309; ss. 13, 38, ch. 98-46; s. 236, ch. 98-166; s. 28, ch. 98-191; ss. 17, 30, ch. 2000-163; s. 19, ch. 2000-209; s. 54, ch. 2000-256; s. 110, ch. 2000-318; s. 49, ch. 2001-45; s. 51, ch. 2001-62; s. 5, ch. 2001-104; s. 4, ch. 2001-222; s. 7, ch. 2001-377; s. 16, ch. 2002-223; s. 996, ch. 2002-387; s. 22, ch. 2002-400; s. 11, ch. 2003-405; s. 53, ch. 2004-5; s. 12, ch. 2004-270; s. 21, ch. 2004-344.
1Note.--Abolished by s. 3, ch. 2001-170.